Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Canine rotavirus

Contributor(s): Melissa Kennedy

Introduction

Classification

Taxonomy

  • Family: Reoviridae.
  • Genus: Rotavirus.

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Clinical Effects

Epidemiology

Habitat

  • Distributed in intestinal tract of multiple mammalian species.
  • May be found transiently in feed and water.

Lifecycle

  • Ingestion of virus → infection of columnar epithelial cells of villi apices.
  • Intracellular multiplication of virus → cellular damage → villus atrophy.

Transmission

  • Feco-oral transmission.

Pathological effects

  • Cells at tips of intestinal villi destroyed; loss of brush-border enzymes leads to osmotic diarrhea Diarrhea: chronic.

Control

Control via chemotherapies

  • Supportive therapy:
    • Electrolytes, fluids.
    • Antibiotics to prevent secondary infection - debatable.

Control via environment

  • Sanitary and hygiene practices should minimize exposure.
  • Isolate pups with dam for at least 3 weeks post-partum, as this is the period of highest susceptibility to disease.

Diagnosis

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Taniguchi K, Urasawa T & Urasawa S (1994) Species specificity and interspecies relatedness in VP4 genotypes demonstrated by VP4 sequence analysis of equine, feline and canine rotavirus strains. Virology 200 (2), 390-400 PubMed.
  • Mochizuki M, Nakagomi O & Shibata S (1992) Hemagglutination activity of two distinct genogroups of feline and canine rotavirus strains. Archives of Virology 122 (3-4), 373-381 PubMed.
  • Tennant B J, Gaskell R M, Jones R C et al (1991) Prevalence of antibodies to four major canine viral diseases in dogs in a Liverpool hospital population. JSAP 32 (4), 175-179 VetMedResource.
  • Fulton R W, Johnson C A, Pearson N J et al (1981) Isolation of a rotavirus from a newborn dog with diarrhea. Am J Vet Res 42 (5), 841-843 PubMed.

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