Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Canine parainfluenza virus 2

Synonym(s): Canine paramyxovirus 2, Parainfluenza virus 2

Contributor(s): Melissa Kennedy

Introduction

Classification

Taxonomy

  • RNA virus.
  • Family: Paramyxoviridae.
  • Genus: Parainfluenzavirus.

Etymology

  • Gk: para - by the side of or similar to; myxa - mucus.

Active Forms

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Clinical Effects

Epidemiology

Habitat

  • Infection localizes in upper respiratory tract of dogs.
  • Can survive in the environment.

Lifecycle

  • Replicates in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells, causing formation of intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies and syncytia.

Transmission

  • Aerosol from the respiratory tract of infected dogs.

Pathological effects

  • Although it can be isolated from dogs with the disease, experimental inoculation of this virus does not produce severe disease. Other agents must therefore also play a part.
  • Virus enters respiratory tract in aerosol and replicates in epithelial cells of the upper respiratory tract. Causes loss of ciliary action and cell necrosis. Remains localized; viremia does not occur except in immunocompromised animals.

Control

Control via chemotherapies

  • Antibiotics may reduce the severity of the disease, indicating that the virus is not the only causative agent.

Vaccination

  • Live attenuated type 2 viral vaccines are available.

Other countermeasures

  • Isolate infected dogs.

Diagnosis

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from VetMed Resource and PubMed.
  • Baumgartner W, Krakowka S & Durchfeld B (1991) In vitro cytopathogenicity and in vivo virulence of two strains of canine parainfluenza virus. Vet Pathol 28(4), 324-331.
  • Wagener J S, Sobonya R, Minnich L & Taussig L M (1984) Role of canine parainfluenza virus and Bordetella bronchiseptica in kennel cough. Am J Vet Res 45(9), 1862-1866.

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