Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Canine coronavirus

Contributor(s): Susan Dawson, Melissa Kennedy

Introduction

Classification

Taxonomy

  • Family: Coronaviridae.
  • Genus: Coronavirus.
  • Group 1 coronavirus: Type 1 canine coronavirus and Type II canine coronavirus.
  • Group 2 coronavirus: Canine respiratory coronavirus.

Etymology

  • L: corona - crown: refers to the large club-shaped glycoprotein peplomers in the envelope of the virus.

Active Forms

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Clinical Effects

Epidemiology

Habitat

  • Can replicate in dogs without clinical signs.
  • Dogs can shed for weeks or months post-infection.

Lifecycle

  • Inapparent or persistent infections occur → virus maintenance.

Transmission

  • Fecal-oral.
  • Ingestion of virus contaminated material.
  • Highly contagious.

Pathological effects

  • Re-infection common; pre-existing immunity does not give good protection.
  • Incubation period 1-4 days.
  • Infects cells of the duodenum and progresses through the small intestine.
  • Spreads to mesenteric lymph nodes, liver and spleen.
  • Present in the feces within 1-2 days of clinical disease.
  • Can act synergistically with other agents.
  • Certain strains can spread systemically and cause severe disease especially in puppies; isolated from lungs, liver, spleen, kidneys.

Control

Control via chemotherapies

  • Treat dehydration and supply electrolytes.

Control via environment

  • Attention to hygiene.
  • Avoid poor management conditions, eg overcrowding or stress.
  • Isolate infected individuals.

Vaccination

  • Inactivated vaccines available in UK.
  • Inactivated and live attenuated vaccines available mainland Europe and USA (2 doses 3 weeks apart and annual boosters).

Diagnosis

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from VetMed Resource and PubMed.
  • Erles K & Brownlie J (2008) Canine respiratory coronavirus: an emerging pathogen in the canine infectious respiratory disease complex. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 38(4), 815-825 PubMed.
  • Buonavoglia C et al (2006) Canine coronavirus highly pathogenic for dogs.Emerging Infectious Diseases 12(3), 492-494 PubMed.
  • Erles K et al (2003) Detection of a group 2 coronavirus in dogs with canine infectious respiratory disease. Virology 310(2), 216-223 PubMed.
  • Tennant B J, Gaskell R M & Gaskell C J (1994) Studies on the survival of canine coronavirus under different environmental conditions. Vet Microbiol 42(2-3), 255-259.
  • Tennant B J, Gaskell R M, Jones R C et al (1993) Studies on the epizootiology of canine coronavirus. Vet Rec 132, 7-11.
  • McArdle F, Bennett M, Gaskell R M et al (1992) Induction and enhancement of feline infectious peritonitis by canine coronavirus. Am J Vet Res 53(9), 1500-1506.
  • Tennant B J, Gaskell R M, Jones R C et al (1991) Prevalence of antibodies to 4 major canine viral diseases in dogs in a Liverpool hospital population. JSAP 32, 175-179.

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