Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Canine adenovirus type 2

Synonym(s): CAV-2

Contributor(s): Melissa Kennedy

Introduction

Classification

Taxonomy

  • DNA virus.
  • Family: Adonviridae.
  • Genus: Mastadenovirus (mammalian adenoviruses).

Etymology

  • Gk: adenos - gland.

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Clinical Effects

Epidemiology

Habitat

  • Survives in canine respiratory tract for up to 28 days.

Lifecycle

  • Replicate in epithelial cells primarily of the upper respiratory tract. Adenoviruses replicate and are assembled in the nucleus of the host cell.
  • Virus particles form crystalline lattices which eventually cause the nucleus to burst.

Transmission

  • Respiratory route.
  • Infection spreads rapidly between unvaccinated dogs.

Pathological effects

Control

Control via environment

  • Detergents ineffective; 3% sodium hypochlorite solution (Clorox (chlorine) bleach) with 5-10 min contact time recommended. (rinse well as bleach is corrosive).

Vaccination

  • Vaccines against infectious canine hepatitis have been developed as an alternative to canine adenovirus type 1 vaccines. (Do not produce post-vaccinal renal and ocular lesions.)
  • Live attenuated canine adenovirus 2 vaccines protect against CAV1 and CAV2.
  • Vaccinate at 12 weeks of age (plus 9 weeks if at risk).
  • Booster vaccination is required.

Diagnosis

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from VetMed Resource and PubMed.
  • Harasawa R, Tohya Y, Yoshida M et al (1994) Two genomic variations in the E1 region of canine adenovirus type 2 strains. Vet Microbio l40(3-4), 373-378.
  • Assaf R, Marsolais G, Yelle J, & Hamelin C (1983) Unambiguous typing of canine adenovirus isolates by deoxyribonucleic acid restriction-endonuclease analysis. Can J Comp Med 47(4), 460-463.
  • Cornwell H J, Koptopoulos G, Thompson H et al (1982) Immunity to canine adenovirus respiratory disease - a comparison of attenuated CAV-1 and CAV-2 vaccines. Vet Rec 110(2), 27-32.

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