Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Canine adenovirus type 1

Synonym(s): CAV-1

Contributor(s): Melissa Kennedy

Introduction

Classification

Taxonomy

  • DNA virus.
  • Family: Adenoviridae.
  • Genus: Mastadenovirus, (mammalian adenoviruses).

Etymology

  • Greek: adenos - gland.

Active Forms

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Clinical Effects

Epidemiology

Habitat

  • Fox is reservoir host (causes encephalitis in foxes).
  • A dog may excrete the virus in the urine for >1 year after recovery from infection.

Lifecycle

  • Double-stranded DNA virus; replicates in host cell nucleus. Virus particles form crystalline lattices which burst the nucleus. Initial replication in tonsils and regional lymph nodes of host. Followed by viremia and rapid dissemination to all body tissues.

Transmission

  • Can be shed in all body secretions; urine is most important source of infection.
  • Oronasal exposure.

Pathological effects

  • Virus localizes in the tonsils and then via lymphatics and thoracic duct to the bloodstream.
  • Virus disseminates to all body tissues and is excreted in the saliva, urine and feces.
  • Liver and vascular endothelial cells are particular sites of viral replication and injury.
  • Common only in unvaccinated populations of dogs.
  • In the acute hepatic form there is severe hepatitis, edema of the gall bladder, multifocal vasculitis and hemorrhage.
  • May become chronic.

Control

Vaccination

  • Inactivated CAV-1 and live attenuated CAV-2 vaccine.
  • At least 2 vaccinations, 3-4 weeks apart, at 8-10 and 12-14 weeks of age and annually thereafter.

Diagnosis

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from VetMed Resource and PubMed.
  • Kobayashi Y, Ochiai K & Itakura C (1993) Dual infection with canine distemper virus and infectious canine hepatitis virus (canine adenovirus type 1) in a dog. J Vet Med Sci 55(4), 699-701.
  • Morrison M D, Onions D E & Nicolcon L (1997) Complete DNA sequence of canine adenovirus type 1. J Gen Virology 78(4), 873-878.

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