Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Campylobacter jejuni

Contributor(s): Richard Walker

Introduction

Classification

Taxonomy

  • Family: Spirillaceae.
  • Genus: Campylobacter.
  • Used to be placed in the genus Vibrio.
  • Species: jejuni.

Etymology

  • Gk: campylo - curved; bacter - rod; jejuni - of the jejunum.

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Clinical Effects

Epidemiology

Habitat

  • Found in animals and their products:
    • Milk.
    • Poultry.
    • Feces of dogs and cats.

Lifecycle

  • Multiplies in the intestinal tract of the host, and invades epithelial cells.
  • Transfers R plasmids, which most commonly carry tetracycline resistance genes.

Transmission

  • Fecal oral route.
  • C. jejuni infection is an important zoonosis.
  • Human beings and other susceptible species obtain infection from animal sources.
  • Infection of human beings occurs following ingestion of an animal product originally contaminated with infected feces.
  • Most human infections occur following consumption of poorly-cooked meat and unpasteurized milk.
  • Handling of animals (especially dogs and cats) may also be a source of human infection.

Pathological effects

  • Produces an adhesin.
  • Produces a heat-labile enterotoxin and a cytotoxin but exact method of pathogenesis unknown.
  • Important zoonosis.
  • Causes:
    • Diarrhea.
    • Abdominal pain.
    • Fever.
    • Sometimes vomiting in human beings.

Other Host Effects

  • Normal intestinal flora.

Control

Control via animal

  • Meticulous hygiene and cleaning to prevent spread.

Control via chemotherapies

  • Erythromycin (40 mg/kg divided TID for 5 days) Erythromycin and tetracycline Tetracycline are used.
    R. plasmids encoding resistance to tetracycline occur.Enrofloxacin is only effective in 60% cases.

Control via environment

  • Control in veterinary hospitals and kennels is carried out by strict adherence to hygiene procedures, including:
    • Hand-washing.
    • Cleaning and disinfection of equipment.
    • Human infections may be prevented by hygienic practices and thorough cooking of food.

Diagnosis

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from VetMed Resource and PubMed.
  • Acke E, McGill K, Golden O, Jones B R, Fanning S & Whyte P (2009) Prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter species in household cats and dogs in Ireland. Vet Rec 164, 44-47 PubMed.
  • Monfort J D et al (1990) Efficacies of erythromycin and chloramphenicol in extinguishing fecal shedding of Campylobacter jejuni in dogs. JAVMA 196, 1069.
  • McCartney L et al (1988) Experimental infection of dogs with Campylobacter jejuni. Vet Rec 122, 245.
  • Newton C M et al (1988) Campylobacter infection in a closed dog breeding colony. Vet Rec 123, 152.
  • Dillon A R et al (1987) Campylobacter enteritis in dogs and cats. Comp Cont Ed Pract Vet 9, 1176.
  • Olson P & Sanstedt K (1987) Campylobacter in the dog - a clinical and experimental study. Vet Rec 121, 99.
  • Nair G B et al (1985) Campylobacter infections in domestic dogs. Vet Rec 116, 237.

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