Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Bartonella

Synonym(s): Bartonella visonii subsp berkhoffii, Bartonella henselae, Bartonella elizabethae, Bartonella clarridgeiae, Bartonella washoensis, cat scratch disease

Contributor(s): Stephen Barr, Susan Dawson, Grace Mulcahy

Introduction

Classification

Taxonomy

  • Genus: Bartonella (includes those previously classified as Rochalimaea and Grahamella).

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Clinical Effects

Epidemiology

Habitat

  • The red blood cell of the infected host (dogs, cats, rodents, etc).

Lifecycle

  • Unknown.

Transmission

  • Vectors are ticks and fleas.
  • Although not proven transmission is thought to be by a bite from an infected tick or flea.
  • Iatrogenic - via blood transfusion Blood: transfusion.

Pathological effects

  • DogsB. visonii subsp berkhoffii occurs in healthy dogs, and dogs with endocarditis, granulomatous lymphadenitis or granulomatous rhinitis. B. henselae was isolated from a dog with heptatomegaly, peritoneal effusion, and peliosis hepatis.
  • Bartonella henselae in humans: cat scratch disease usully manifests as a lymphadenopathy Lymphadenopathy proximal to the site of a cat scratch or bite. In immunocompromised individuals, bacillary angiomatosis or peliosis hepatis can also result from B. henselae infection.

Control

Control via chemotherapies

  • Long-term treatment up to 6 weeks may be required.
  • Erythromycin Erythromycin and oxytetracycline Oxytetracycline diminish bacteremia.
  • Doxycycline Doxycycline (25 mg BID PO) for up to 4 weeks: follow-up blood culture 2-4 weeks after completion of antimicrobial treatment.
    Enrofloxacin and amoxycillin are not effective.

Control via environment

Vaccination

  • None available.

Other countermeasures

  • Thorough cleaning of bite or scratch wounds.
  • Humans with cat scratch disease have responded well to rifampicin, ciprofloxacin Ciprofloxacin , trimethroprim-sulfonamethoxazole Trimethoprim , or gentamicin Gentamicin for 2-6 weeks.
  • Bacillary angiomatosis responds to doxycycline Doxycycline or erythromycin Erythromycin.

Diagnosis

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from VetMed Resource and PubMed.
  • Breitschwerdt E B, Suksawat J, Chomel B et al (2003) The immunologic response of dogs to Bartonella visonii subsp berkhoffii antigens as assessed by Western immunoblot analysisJ Vet Diag Invest 15, 349-354 PubMed.
  • Chomel BB, MacDonald K A, Karsten R W et al (2001) Aortic valve endocardititis in a dog due toBartonella clarridgeiaeJ Clin Microbiol 39, 3548-3554 PubMed.
  • Pappalardo B L, Brown T, Gookin J L et al (2000) Granulomatous disease associated with Bartonella infection in 2 dogs. J Vet Intern Med 14, 37-42 PubMed.
  • Kitchell B E, Fan T M, Kordick D, Breitschwerdt E B, Wollenberg G & Lichtensteiger C A (2000) Peliosis hepatis in a dog infected with Bartonella henselae. J Am Vet Med Assoc 216(4), 519-523 PubMed.
  • Breitschwerdt E B, Hegarty B C & Hancock S L (1998) Sequential evaluation of dogs naturally infected with Ehrlichia canisEhrlichia chaffeensisEhrlichia equi, Ehrlichia eqingii or Bartonella visoniiJ Clin Microbiol 36, 2645-2651 PubMed.

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