Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Amblyomma maculatum

Synonym(s): Gulf coast tick

Contributor(s): Ian Wright

Introduction

Classification

Taxonomy

  • Class: Arachnida; subclass:Acari
  • Order: Metastigmata or Ixodida
  • Family: Ixodidae
  • Genus: Amblyomma
  • Species: Amblyomma maculatum

Active Forms

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Resting Forms

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Clinical Effects

Epidemiology

Habitat

  • Adults feed on deer, horses, cattle, sheep and carnivores.
  • Nymphs and larvae usually parasitize small rodents, lagamorphs and ground nesting birds.
  • Preferred habitats are woodland or pasture bordering woodland.

Lifecycle

  • Three host tick, ie each stage falls off the host into the environment after feeding, molts and finds another host for the next stage.
  • Life cycle usually taks 3 years with one generation per year but stages may overwinter.

Pathological effects

  • Pruritus, local hypersensitivity with tick-bite site ulceration and secondary pyoderma Skin: deep pyoderma.
  • Adults can engorge with 0.5-2 ml blood so potential for anemia if present in large numbers.
  • Vector of Hepatozoon americanum, cause of American canine hepatozoonosis.
  • Vector of Rickettsia parkeri, cause of a form of spotted fever in humans.
  • Very painful bite.

Control

Control via chemotherapies

  • Amitraz Amitraz , Fipronil Fipronil , pyrethroids, pyriprole and isoxazolines are approved for treatment and prophylaxis in dogs.

Control via environment

  • Avoidance of woodland and pasture bordering woodland.
  • If walking through woodlands, keep to the center of paths rather than walking close to trees and shrubs at edge of path.
  • Management of garden habitat, avoiding significant garden plant cover in rural areas.

Vaccination

  • None available for tick control. See control of tick-borne diseases Tick control.

Other countermeasures

  • Checking for ticks every 24 hours and removal with a tick hook using a 'twist and pull' action.
  • Important to remove tick as soon as it is found to reduce risk of disease transmission.
  • If the tick is removed but the mouthparts remain this will increase the risk of local soft tissue reaction and disease transmission.

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from VetMed Resource and PubMed.
  • Florin A J, Jiang J, Robbins R G & Richards A L (2013) Infection of the Gulf Coast tick, Ambylomma maculatum (Acari: Ixodidae), with Rickettsia parkeri: first report from the State of Delaware. Systematic & Applied Acarology 18, 27-29.

Other sources of information

  • Wall R & Shearer D S (Editors) (2008) Veterinary Ectoparasites: Biology, Pathology and Control, 2nd edn, Blackwell Science Ltd, London, pp 71-74.
  • Baker A S (1990) Mite and ticks of domestic animals: An identification and information source. The Natural History Museum, The Stationery Office, London, pp 176-179.

ADDED