Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Actinomyces pyogenes

Synonym(s): Corynebacterium pyogenes, bacteria

Contributor(s): Richard Walker

Introduction

Classification

Taxonomy

  • Order: Actinomycetales.
  • Family: Actinomycetaceae.
  • Genus: Arcanobacterium.
  • Species: pyogenes.

Etymology

  • Gk: pyogenes- pus-producing.

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Clinical Effects

Epidemiology

Habitat

  • Colonizes the mucous membranes and skin of susceptible species.

Lifecycle

  • Reproduces on the mucous membranes and skin of the host by binary fission.
  • Does not reproduce using spores.

Transmission

  • Endogenous infection.
  • Bites.

Pathological effects

  • Killed by phagocytes.
  • Man: cell-mediated and humoral immunity - circulating antibody, produced during infection does not confer protection.
  • Specific resistance, if any, is probably cell-mediated.
  • Trauma or infection by another agent → stimulates latent infection → active infection (Actinomycosis) → pyogranulomatous reaction (bacterial colonies with suppuration) → surrounding granulation, mononuclear infiltration and fibrosis.

Cattle, sheep and pigs

  • Suppurative mastitis (acute and chronic).
  • Suppurative pneumonia.
  • Septic arthritis.
  • Endometritis.
  • Umbilical infections.
  • Wound infections.
  • Mixed infections with Fusobacterium necrophorum and other anaerobic bacteria.

Bulls and boars

  • Seminal vesiculitis.

Cattle alone

  • Summer mastitis (mixed infection with an anaerobe, eg Peptostreptococcus indolicus).
  • Vegetative endocarditis.

Other Host Effects

  • Present on host's mucous membranes - mouth or oropharynx, secondarily gastrointestinal tract.

Control

Control via chemotherapies

  • Penicillin G Benzylpenicillin , tetracycline Tetracycline.
    Response to treatment in summer mastitis is disappointing, presumably due to involvement of other bacteria.

Vaccination

  • None.

Other countermeasures

  • If possible, establish drainage of affected site.

Vaccination

  • None.

Other countermeasures

  • If possible, establish drainage of affected site.

Diagnosis

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from VetMed Resource and PubMed.
  • Kirpensteijn J & Fingland R B (1992) Cutaneous actinomycosis and nocardiosis in dogs - 48 cases (1980-1990). JAVMA 201, 917.
  • Edwards D F et al (1988) Thoracic, abdominal and vertebral actinomycosis - diagnosis and longterm therapy in three dogs.JVIM2, 184.
  • Hardie E M & Barsanti J A (1982)Treatment of canine actinomycosis.JAVMA180, 537.

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