Bovis ISSN 2398-2993

Rectal prolapse: correction

Contributor(s): Ash Phipps , Adam Dunstan-Martin

Introduction

  • Rectal prolapse is a condition where the rectal mucosa prolapses outside of the rectum and anus.
  • Most commonly associated with conditions that cause excessive straining. These conditions can be divided in to the following:
    • Tenesmus associated with coccidiosis and colitis.
    • Dysuria associated with cystitis, urolithiasis, dystocia and neoplasia.
    • Neuropathies associated with cows being mounted during estrus, spinal lymphoma, spinal abscesses and other spinal related conditions.
    • Chronic coughing from respiratory disease.
    • Genetic.
    • Dietary (feedstuffs high in estrogenic compounds).
    • Over conditioned cows with excess pelvic fat deposition.
  • Rectal prolapses can be divided in to 4 categories:
    • Grade 1 – Prolapse of the rectal mucosa only (may be intermittent).
    • Grade II – Complete prolapse of all layers of the rectum (may be intermittent).
    • Grade III – Grade II rectal prolapse with intussusception of the large colon.
    • Grade IV – Grade III rectal prolapse and the anal sphincter is causing constriction of the rectum and colon.
  • Grade I to II rectal prolapses are generally easily manually replaced and do not require surgical resection.
  • Grade III and IV generally require surgical resection and correction.

Requirements

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Preparation

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Procedure

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Aftercare

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Outcomes

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Prognosis

  • Grade I and II- Prognosis is good.
  • Grade III- Prognosis is fair.
  • Grade IV- Prognosis is fair.

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Anderson D E & Miesner M D (2008) Rectal prolapse. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice 24 (2), 403-408 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Parkinson T J, Vermunt J J & Malmo J (2010) Diseases of cattle in Australasia: a comprehensive textbook. New Zealand Veterinary Association Foundation for Continuing Education, Wellington, NZ.
  • Anderson D E & Rings M (2008) Current veterinary therapy: food animal practice. Elsevier Health Sciences. St Louis, Missouri, USA.
  • Divers T J & Peek S (2007) Rebhun's diseases of dairy cattle. Elsevier Health Sciences. St Louis, Missouri, USA.
  • Fubini S L & Ducharme N (2004) Farm animal surgery. Elsevier Health Sciences, St Louis, Missouri, USA.


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