ISSN 2398-2993      

Retrobulbar block: 1 point

obovis
Contributor(s):

Gayle Hallowell

Alex Dugdale

University of Nottingham logo

Synonym(s): Retrobulbar, eye block


Introduction

  • Note from the Editor: the naming of the techniques used to deposit local anesthesia behind the globe is a little controversial!
    • At present, different authors use different names for the various techniques.
    • We have chosen to use the names shown, for these techniques, but have included alternative names in the synonyms section (below the title).
    • The authors and editor feel that the naming of these techniques is of secondary importance to the correct performance of them.
    • Full details of when and how to perform these techniques are given in the articles.
  • Retrobulbar injection of local anesthetic desensitises the structures of the eye and paralyses the external ocular muscles, providing a globe which is anesthetized, immobile and central.

Uses

  • Analgesia for Enucleation Enucleation, which is usually undertaken in standing, sedated or unsedated cattle that are well restrained in a crush Restraint techniques.

Advantages

  • Provides excellent peri-operative analgesia.

Disadvantages

  • Inadvertent injection of local anesthetic agent into a blood vessel could lead to sudden death.
  • Inadvertent injection of local anesthetic agent into the CSF surrounding the optic nerve could lead to collapse, seizures and respiratory arrest (followed by cardiac arrest) due to brainstem anesthesia.
  • Risk of globe trauma if performed incorrectly. Prior to enucleation this complication is less of a concern unless endophthalmitis is present, in which case it risks local spread of infection.
  • Risk of trauma to local tissues.
  • Risk of initiation of oculocardiac reflex.

Requirements

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Preparation

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Procedure

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMed Resource.
  • Edmondson M A (2016) Local, Regional, and Spinal Anesthesia in Ruminants. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 32 (3) pp 535-552.

Other sources of information

  • Valverde A & Sinclair M (2015) Ruminant and Swine Local Anesthetic and Analgesic Techniques. In: Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Blackwell Publishing.
  • Clarke K & Trim C (2014) Anaesthesia of Cattle. In: Veterinary Anaesthesia. 11th Edn. Elsevier.

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