ISSN 2398-2993      

Mastitis: antibiotic therapy and treatment strategies

obovis
Contributor(s):

Al Manning

James Breen

RVC logoUniversity of Nottingham logo

Synonym(s): Udder health, pharmacology, one health, herd health, antimicrobial
 


Introduction

  • Bovine mastitis is a significant disease, particularly in dairy cattle.
    • Hanks and Kossaibati (2016) estimated the UK median incidence at 36 cases per 100 cows per year.  
    • Bradley et al (2007) estimated the incidence at 47-71 cases per 100 cows per year.  
  • Almost all cases are associated with bacteria, and as such antibiotics are the most commonly used treatment.
  • There are more antibiotics licensed for treatment of bovine mastitis than any other single condition in any veterinary species!

Common pathogens

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Suitable therapies

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Treatment strategies

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Pharmacology of the mammary gland

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Systemic or intramammary therapy

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Responsible use of antibiotics

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Complementary therapy

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Conclusions

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers:

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • McDougall S, Abbeloos E, Piepers S, Rao A S, Astiz S, van Werven T & Pérez-Villalobos N (2016) Addition of meloxicam to the treatment of clinical mastitis improves subsequent reproductive performance. J Dairy Sci 99 (3), 2026–2042 PubMed.
  • Hanks J & Kossaibati M (2016) Key Performance Indicators for the UK national dairy herd.
  • Bradley A J, Breen J, Payne B, White V & Green M J (2015) An investigation of the efficacy of a polyvalent mastitis vaccine using different vaccination regimens under field conditions in the United Kingdom. J Dairy Sci 98 (3), 1706–20 PubMed.
  • Randall L, Heinrich K, Horton R, Brunton L, Sharman M, Bailey-Horne V & Jones J (2014) Detection of antibiotic residues and association of cefquinome residues with the occurrence of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria in waste milk samples from dairy farms in England and Wales in 2011. Res Vet Sci 96 (1), 15–24 PubMed.
  • Swinkels J M, Cox P, Schukken Y H & Lam T J G M (2013) Efficacy of extended cefquinome treatment of clinical Staphylococcus aureus mastitis. J Dairy Sci 96 (8), 4983–92 PubMed.
  • Brunton L A, Duncan D, Coldham N G, Snow L C & Jones J R (2012) A survey of antimicrobial usage on dairy farms and waste milk feeding practices in England and Wales. Vet Rec PubMed.
  • Katholm J, Bennedsgaard T W, Koskinen M T & Rattenborg E (2012) Quality of bulk tank milk samples from Danish dairy herds based on real-time polymerase chain reaction identification of mastitis pathogens. J Dairy Sci 95 (10), 5702–8 PubMed.
  • Whittem T, Whittem J H & Constable P D (2012) Modelling the concentration-time relationship in milk from cattle administered an intramammary drug. Journal of Vet Pharmacol Thera 35 (5), 460–471 PubMed.
  • Holmes M A & Zadoks R N (2011) Methicillin Resistant S. aureus in Human and Bovine Mastitis. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplas16 (4), 373–382.
  • Lago A, Godden S M, Bey R, Ruegg P L & Leslie K (2011) The selective treatment of clinical mastitis based on on-farm culture results: I. Effects on antibiotic use, milk withholding time, and short-term clinical and bacteriological outcomes. J Dairy Sci PubMed.
  • Suojala L, Simojoki H, Mustonen K, Kaartinen L & Pyörälä S (2010) Efficacy of enrofloxacin in the treatment of naturally occurring acute clinical Escherichia coli mastitis. J Dairy Sci, 93 (5) 1960–9 PubMed.
  • Koskinen M T, Wellenberg G J, Sampimon O C, Holopainen J, Rothkamp A, Salmikivi L, Pyörälä S (2010) Field comparison of real-time polymerase chain reaction and bacterial culture for identification of bovine mastitis bacteria. J Dairy Sci 93 (12), 5707–5715 PubMed.
  • Bradley A J & Green M J (2009) Factors affecting cure when treating bovine clinical mastitis with cephalosporin-based intramammary preparations. J Dairy Sci PubMed.
  • Pyörälä S (2009) Treatment of mastitis during lactation. Irish Vet J 6240–44.
  • McDougall S, Bryan M & Tiddy R M (2009) Effect of treatment with the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory meloxicam on milk production, somatic cell count, probability of re-treatment, and culling of dairy cows with mild clinical mastitis. J Dairy Sci 92 (9), 4421–31 PubMed.
  • Bradley A J, Leach K A, Breen J E, Green L E & Green M J (2007) Survey of the incidence and aetiology of mastitis on dairy farms in England and Wales. Vet Rec 160 (8), 253–257 PubMed.
  • Pol M & Ruegg P L (2007) Treatment practices and quantification of antimicrobial drug usage in conventional and organic dairy farms in Wisconsin. J Dairy Sci 90 (1), 249–61 PubMed.
  • McDougall S, Agnew K E, Cursons R, Hou X X & Compton C R W (2007) Parenteral treatment of clinical mastitis with tylosin base or penethamate hydriodide in dairy cattle. J Dairy Sci 90 (2), 779–789.
  • Gehring R & Smith G W (2006) An overview of factors affecting the disposition of intramammary preparations used to treat bovine mastitis. J Vet Pharmacol Therapeu PubMed.
  • Sérieys F, Raguet Y, Goby L, Schmidt H & Friton G (2005) Comparative Efficacy of Local and Systemic Antibiotic Treatment in Lactating Cows with Clinical Mastitis. J Dairy Sci, 88 (1), 93–99 PubMed.
  • Hoe F G H & Ruegg P L (2005) Relationship between antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical mastitis pathogens and treatment outcome in cows. JAVMA 227 (9), 1461–1468 PubMed.
  • Constable P D & Morin D E (2003) Treatment of clinical mastitis: Using antimicrobial susceptibility profiles for treatment decisions. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 19 (1), 139–155 PubMed.
  • Taponen S, Jantunen A, Pyörälä E & Pyörälä S (2003) Efficacy of targeted 5-day combined parenteral and intramammary treatment of clinical mastitis caused by penicillin-susceptible or penicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 44 (1-2), 53–62.
  • Gillespie B E, Moorehead H, Lunn P, Dowlen H H, Johnson D L, Lamar K C & Oliver S P (2002) Efficacy of extended pirlimycin hydrochloride therapy for treatment of environmental Streptococcus spp and Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infections in lactating dairy cows. Vet Therapeut Research Appl Vet Med 3 (4), 373–80 PubMed.
  • Erskine R J, Wagner S & DeGraves F J (2003) Mastitis therapy and pharmacology. Vet Clinics North Am Food Anim Pract 19 (1), 109–138.
  • Oliver S P, Almeida R A, Gillespie B E, Ivey S J, Moorehead H, Lunn P & Lamar K C (2003) Efficacy of extended pirlimycin therapy for treatment of experimentally induced Streptococcus uberis intramammary infections in lactating dairy cattle. Vet Thera Res Appl Vet Med 4 (3), 299–308 PubMed.
  • Rossitto P V, Ruiz L, Kikuchi Y, Glenn K, Luiz K, Watts J L & Cullor J S (2002) Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns for Environmental Streptococci Isolated from Bovine Mastitis in Central California Dairies. J Dairy Sci 85 (1), 132–138 PubMed.
  • Gruet P, Maincent P, Berthelot X & Kaltsatos V (2001) Bovine mastitis and intramammary drug delivery: review and perspectives. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 50 (0169-409X), 245–259 PubMed.
  • Hillerton J E & Semmens J E (1999) Comparison of treatment of mastitis by oxytocin or antibiotics following detection according to changes in milk electrical conductivity prior to visible signs. J Dairy Sci 82 (1), 93–8 PubMed.
  • Erskine R J, Wilson R C, Tyler J W, McClure K A, Nelson R S & Spears H J (1995) Ceftiofur distribution in serum and milk from clinically normal cows and cows with experimental Escherichia coli-induced mastitis. Am J Vet Res 56 (4), 481–5 PubMed.
  • Güterbock W M (1995) Oxytocin and other alternatives to antibiotic therapy of clinical mastitis. Cattle Practice 3, 125-130.
  • Erskine R J, Bartlett P C, Crawshaw P C, Gombas D M, Bauer A W, Kirby W M M & Saran A (1994) Efficacy of intramuscular oxytetracycline as a dry cow treatment for Staphylococcus aureus mastitis. J Dairy Sci  77 (11), 3347–53 PubMed.
  • Pyörälä S, Kaartinen L, Käck H & Rainio V (1994) Efficacy of Two Therapy Regimens for Treatment of Experimentally Induced Escherichia coli Mastitis in Cows. J Dairy Sci 77 (2), 453–461 PubMed.
  • Watts J L (1988) Etiological agents of bovine mastitis. Vet Microbiol 16 (1), 41–66.

Other sources of information:

  • World Health Organisation (2016) Critically Important Antimicrobials for Human Medicine - 5th Revision. Geneva, Switzerland. 
  • Biggs A (2009) Mastitis in Cattle. Crowood Press.
  • Divers T J & Peek S F (2008) Rebhun’s Diseases of Dairy Cattle. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Organisation(s)

  • Royal Veterinary College.

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!

 
 
 
 

To show you are not a Bot please can you enter the number showing adjacent to this field

 Security code