ISSN 2398-2993      

Genomics: overview

obovis
Contributor(s):

Mark Burnell

Denis Larkin

Synergy Farm Health logoRVC logo

Synonym(s): DNA, heredity, genetics, genotype, phenotype


Introduction

  • Genetics: the study of heredity.
  • Genomics: the branch of molecular biology concerned with structure, function, evolution and mapping of the genome.
  • A Genome, is an organism's entire genetic code (DNA sequence) contained as chromosomes (30 pairs in the bovine).
  • Genotype: the entire genetic constitution of an individual which expresses the phenotype eg recessive and dominant genes.
    • The bovine has 23,000 genes that we know of.  This is only 10% of the DNA!
    • Gene interactions, switching on and off etc are regulated by non-gene DNA in a highly complex way.  Research into this is ongoing.
  • Phenotype: the outward appearance of an animal in all of its anatomical, physiological and behavioral characteristics, as dictated by the genetic and environmental influences in its environment.
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Back to basics

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Relevance of genomics to cattle breeding

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Breeding reliability

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The importance of breeding

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Why should a dairy business consider using genomics?

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Genomic testing calves

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Will it pay off?

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Summary

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