Bovis ISSN 2398-2993

Cardiovascular system: examination

Contributor(s): Gayle Hallowell , Alex Dugdale

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Introduction

  • A thorough examination of the cardiovascular system is essential as part of a major body system assessment in critically ill animals and as part of a full clinical examination.
  • It is an important part of a pre-anesthetic evaluation.
  • In cattle where cardiac disease is suspected, a methodical examination is important to act as a basis from which to select appropriate further diagnostic tests and to evaluate the severity of disease.

Signalment

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History

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Clinical examination

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Cardiac auscultation

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Further investigations

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

Other sources of information

  • Reef V B & McGuirk S M (2015) Disease of the cardiovascular system. Chapter 30. Eds: B Smith. Large animal internal medicine. 5th Edition. Elsevier.


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