ISSN 2398-2993      

Cattle flies and larvae: overview

obovis

Introduction

  • Flies are arthropods from the class insect.
  • Flies have 4 stages in their lifecycle: egg → larva → pupa → adult.
  • The larval stage appears worm-like.
  • Flies have several types of mouthparts according to their feeding habits: either piercing and sucking (mosquitoes, stable fly) or piercing and cutting (horsefly) or sponge-like for feeding on skin/membrane surfaces.
  • Control of flies can be difficult in farming situations. Need to try and reduce natural fly habitats:
    • General farm hygiene, including removal of animal wastes, carcasses, spilt feed, organic debris, and household garbage.
    • Proper water management to ensure good drainage and removal of free-standing surface water.
    • Adequate systems for manure management.
  • Use of cypermethrin-impregnated ear tags or pyrethroid pour-ons are the main chemical methods of fly control.
  • Generally, identification of the actual fly species is unnecessary as the control strategies are similar for all.

Flies

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Midges and mosquitoes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMed Resource.
  • Fernández de M M, Brugman V A , Hernández-Triana L M, Thorne L et al (2016) Detection of Theileria orientalis in Mosquito Blood Meals in the United Kingdom. Vet Parasitol 229, 31-36.
  • Angelos J A (2015) Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis (Pinkeye). Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 31 (1), 61-79 PubMed.
  • Harrup L E, Gubbins S, Barber J, Denison et al (2014) Does Covering of Farm-Associated Culicoides Larval Habitat Reduce Adult Populations in the United Kingdom? Vet Parasitol 201 (1), 137-145 PubMed.
  • Milnes, Ailsa, Mitchell S & Bell S (2012) Emerging Skin Conditions in Cattle. In Pract 34 (10), 588-597.
  • DeRouen S M, Miller J E, Foil L D & Gentry G T (2009) Control of Horn Flies (Haematobia irritans) and Gastrointestinal Parasites and Its Relation with Cow–calf Performance. Vet Parasitol 162 (3), 320-326 PubMed.
  • Postma, Cintia G, Carfagnini J C & Minatel L (2008) Moraxella bovis Pathogenicity: An Update. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 31 (6), 449-458 PubMed.
  • Broce A B (2006) Ectoparasite Control. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 22 (2), 463-474 PubMed.
  • Taylor M (2000) Use of Anthelmintics in Cattle. In Pract 22 (6), 290-304 PubMed.
  • Tarry D W (1986) Progress in Warble Fly Eradication. Parasitol Today 2 (4), 111-116 PubMed.

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