ISSN 2398-2993      

Anesthetic monitoring: acid base and electrolyte

obovis
Contributor(s):

Gayle Hallowell

Alex Dugdale

University of Nottingham logo


Introduction

  • Acid-base and electrolyte abnormalities are relatively common in the anesthetised patient especially neonates and patients with gastrointestinal disorders.
  • They are especially common and complex in cattle as these animals often present relatively late compared with other species.
  • Monitoring of these variables is essential to enable accurate and appropriate therapy.
  • Arterial and venous blood gas results can provide information about:
    • Acid-base status.
    • Peripheral blood flow.
    • Pulmonary gas exchange.
  • Venous samples aid interpretation of hypercapnia and acidosis at the tissue level.
  • Arterial blood samples aid interpretation of pulmonary gas exchange.
Equipment and technical skill
  • Venous blood sample may be all that is required.
  • Arterial samples can be obtained from the auricular, brachial or palmar arteries with relative ease.
  • Electrolyte samples can be obtained from standard chemistry machines. However, for measurement of ionised Calcium Calcium and Magnesium Magnesium (which are the unbound, active forms) or for information on pH, HCO3-, PO2 or PCO2 a blood-gas machine is required. Handheld machines are becoming more available and more economical to use.

Methodology

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Respiratory disorders

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Metabolic disorders

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Other electrolyte abnormalities during anesthesia

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Conclusion

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

Other sources of information

  • Stmpfli H & Oliver-Espinosa (2015) Clinical Chemistry Tests. Ed: B Smith. In: Large Animal Internal Medicine. 5th Edition. Chapter 22. Elsevier
  • Valverde A and Sinclair M (2015) Ruminant Anesthesia. In: Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Chapter 49. Blackwell Publishing.
  • Clarke K & Trim C (2014) Anaesthesia of Cattle. In: Veterinary Anaesthesia. 11th Edn. Elsevier.

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