ISSN 2398-2993      

Anesthesia: monitoring respiratory function

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Contributor(s):

Gayle Hallowell

Alex Dugdale

University of Nottingham logo


Introduction

  • Monitoring of breathing rate, rhythm and, as far as is possible, depth should be continuously carried out throughout every anesthetic procedure.
  • Observing the movement of the chest and abdomen will give a good guide to rate and depth of respiration, even under IV anaesthesia IV anaesthesia.
  • Observation of the reservoir bag during inhalation anesthesia enables breathing rate to be monitored accurately, but gives only a poor estimate of the tidal volume, although breath-to-breath changes in the depth of breathing can be subjectively assessed.
  • Methods of monitoring the adequacy of ventilation require specialised equipment including arterial blood gas analysis and measurement of inspired end-tidal carbon dioxide and oxygen tension; but these are rarely used in bovine anesthesia.
  • Most of the above equipment is expensive, but it can provide valuable information.

Blood gas analysis

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Respiratory gas analysis

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Pulse oximetry

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Respiratory complications

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Seddighi R, Doherty T J (2016) Field Sedation and Anesthesia of Ruminants. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 32 (3), 553-570. 
  • Abrahamsen E J (2013) Chemical restraint and injectable anesthesia of ruminants. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 29 (1), 209-27. 
  • Smith G (2013) Extralabel use of anesthetic and analgesic compounds in cattle. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 29 (1), 29-45.

Other sources of information

  • Valverde A & Sinclair M (2015) Ruminant Anesthesia. In: Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Blackwell Publishing.
  • Clarke K & Trim C (2014) Patient Monitoring and Clinical Measurement and Anaesthesia of Cattle. In: Veterinary Anaesthesia. 11th Edn. Elsevier.

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