Bovis ISSN 2398-2993

Testicular hypoplasia

Contributor(s): Jonathan Statham , Paul Wood

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Introduction

  • Cause: lack of development of the spermatogenic epithelium in utero.
  • Signs: the presence of one or two small testes.
  • Diagnosis: physical examination of the testes after puberty.
  • Prognosis: testicular hypoplasia can result in permanent reduced fertility or infertility.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Lack of development of the spermatogenic epithelium.
  • Chromosomal abnormalities may interrupt meiosis. 
    • Reduced fertility in bulls carrying a 1/29 Robertsonian translocation has been reported and bulls with 61 XXY chromosomes are completely sterile. 
  • It is theoretically possible that toxic agents such as such as heavy metals, pesticides, pharmaceuticals & hormones or infectious agents such as BVD virus BVD virus BVD disease affecting the dam at a critical stage of organogenesis of the testes could also cause bilateral TH.

Pathophysiology

  • Failure of development of seminiferous tubules and interstitial cells.

Timecourse

  • Congenital presentation, but may not be apparent until puberty.

Epidemiology

  • Risks based on genetics and individual herd level environmental exposure to toxic insults.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMed Resource.
  • Statham, J M E (2010) Differential diagnosis of scrotal enlargement in bulls. In Practice 32 pp 2-9.
  • Penny C (2009) The development of a UK bull breeding soundness evaluation certificate. Cattle Practice 17, pp 64-70.
  • Eppink E (2006) A survey of bull breeding soundness evaluations in the south east of Scotland. Cattle Practice 13 pp 205-209.
  • Penny C (2005) Practical semen collection and examination techniques for breeding soundness evaluation of bulls. Cattle Practice 13, pp 199-204.
  • McGowan M (2004) Approach to conducting bull breeding soundness evaluations. In Practice 26 pp 485-491.
  • Logue D N, Harvey M J A & Lennox B (1979) Hormonal and histological studies in a 61 XXY bull. Veterinary Record 104, pp 500-503.
  • Logue D N & Harvey M J A (1978) Meiosis and spermatogenesis in bulls heterozygous for a presumptive 1/29 Robertsonian translocation. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 54, pp 159-165.

Other sources of information

  • Aiello S E & Moses M A (2016) Reproductive System. In: Merck Veterinary Manual. 11th Edn. Kenilworth, USA. pp 1321-1408.
  • Chenoweth P (2015) Bull Health and Breeding Soundness. In: Bovine Medicine. 3rd Edn. Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, pp 246-261.
  • Logue D N & Crawshaw W M (2004) Bull infertility. In: Bovine Medicine – Diseases and Husbandry of Cattle, 2nd Edn. Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Oxford. pp 594-626.
  • Entwistle K & Fordyce G (2003) Evaluating and reporting bull fertility. Australian Association of Cattle Veterinarians, Brisbane, Australia.


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