ISSN 2398-2993      

Pyothorax

obovis
Contributor(s):

Ben Dustan

Vetstream Ltd

Synonym(s): Thoracic empyema


Introduction

  • Accumulation of pus within the thoracic cavity.
  • Cause: underlying inflammatory disorder: infection may enter the thoracic cavity by various routes, e.g. direct penetration or hematogenous spread.
  • Signs: dyspnea, pyrexia and anorexia.
    • Subacute - chronic condition, characteristically taking several days to several weeks to develop.
  • Diagnosis: history, clinical signs, thoracocentesis/cytology, hematology, auscultation, radiography, ultrasonography.
  • Treatment: depends on etiology - may involve both medical and surgical options.
  • Prognosis: depends on etiology - fair to guarded.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Pathophysiology

  • Infection may enter the thoracic cavity by the following routes:
    • Direct penetration, e.g. impalement, gun shot.
    • Direct spread, e.g. following pneumonia, invasion from adjacent tissues (tuberculosis Tuberculosis).
    • Hematogenous spread.
    • Foreign body migration, e.g. bronchial or esophageal foreign body, parasitic (lungworm Lungworm).
    • Iatrogenic: following thoracocentesis Thoracocentesis or thoracic surgery.
  • A suppurative inflammatory process develops.
  • Pus accumulates within the thorax.

Timecourse

  • Days to several weeks/months.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

Other sources of information

  • Smith (2002) Large Animal Internal Medicine. 3rd edn. pp 967.

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