ISSN 2398-2993      

Balanitis, posthitis and balanoposthitis

obovis
Contributor(s):

Ash Phipps

Paul Wood

Royal Dick School Veterinary Studies logo

Synonym(s): Ulcerative


Introduction

  • Inflammation of the free body or glans of the penis (balanitis), in association with inflamed laminae of the prepuce (posthitis). These conditions are often seen together, which is referred to as balanoposthitis.
  • Cause: most commonly caused by traumatic injury and infections.
  • Signs: mild disease there may be no clinical signs; severe disease the bulls may show signs of pain, unwillingness to serve, paraphimosis and preputial discharge.
  • Diagnosis: history, clinical signs, visual and physical examination, ultrasonography, microbiology, biopsy, depending on the likelihood of differential diagnoses.
  • Treatment: symptomatic treatment.
  • Prognosis: dependent on the cause; good if traumatic and dealt with rapidly and aggressively post-insult; decreases with chronicity.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Inflammation, regardless of inciting pathology, leads to swelling of the penis and/or prepuce. The dependent position of the organs leads to increased blood flow to the area and increased permeability of blood vessels.
  • Extravasation of fluid into the interstitial space, leading to greater swelling and further inflammation, and an inflammatory cycle. The inflammatory cascade is exacerbated by the relatively inelastic preputial ring, and the restrictions imposed by the preputial orifice. With time, the chronic inflammation may lead to induration, ischemia, and necrosis.

Timecourse

  • Depends on etiology.
  • In traumatic lesions, the tissues may not recover without treatment over a period of days.

Epidemiology

  • Typically this is sporadic, with the exception of venereally transmitted diseases, especially IPB.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Kapil S & Basaraba R J (1997) Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis. The Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice 13, 455-60.

Other sources of information

  • Barrelet A, Held J P & Gunn A (2017) Penis: balanoposthitis, Vetstream Equis.
  • Parkinson T J, Vermunt J J & Malmo J (2010) Diseases of cattle in Australasia: a comprehensive textbook. New Zealand Veterinary Association Foundation for Continuing Education, Wellington, NZ, pp 204-206, 494-495.
  • Kahrs R F (2001) Venereal disease of cattle. 2nd edn. Lowa State University Press, Ames, USA. pp 159-170.
  • Smith B P (1996) Large animal internal medicine. Mosby Elsevier, St. Louis, Missouri. pp 1474- 1475.

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