Bovis ISSN 2398-2993

Periodontal disease and tooth root abscesses

Contributor(s): Ben Dustan , Sophie Mahendran

Introduction

  • Dental problems are relatively uncommon in cattle, but periodontal disease and tooth root abscesses can occur, as with any species.

Pathogenesis

Predisposing factors

General

  • Poor nutrition.
  • Aging.
  • Malocclusions.

Specific

  • Diastema between teeth.
  • Malpositioned teeth.
  • Oral bacterial infections such as Actinobaciliosis Actinobacillosis  .

Pathophysiology

  • Periodontal disease: 
    • Bacterial gingivitis, typically the result of food impaction in the gingival sulcus or interproximal spaces between teeth or diastema, leads to acute gingivitis.  
    • This in turn, results in progressive chronic inflammation of the gingival sulcus.  
    • Plaque-forming microorganisms destroy the periodontal ligament, allowing periodontal pockets to form.
    • This facilitates further food impaction and tooth loosening.
    • Gum recession develops.
    • Further food and debris accumulates in periodontal pockets and alveolus becomes infected.
  • Tooth root abscessation: 
    • Loss of tooth (natural shedding / pathologic) exposes alveolus and allows food / debris accumulations within the socket.
    • Oral microorganism ingress, leading the establishment of infection and abscessation.
    • Can be the result of periodontal disease.
    • May be a sequelae to another oral cavity infection (eg Actinomyces Actinomyces) or as the result of direct trauma  .

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMed Resource.
  • Borsanelli A C, Viora L, Lappin D F, Bennett D et al (2016) Periodontal lesions in slaughtered cattle in west of Scotland. Veterinary Record 179, pp 652-654.

Other sources of information

  • Smith B P (2002) Large Animal Internal Medicine. 3rd Edn. In: Diseases of the alimentary tract. pp 695-699.
  • Jones T C, Hunt R D & King N W (1997) Veterinary Pathology. 6th Edn. In: The Digestive System. pp 1044.


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