ISSN 2398-2993      

Infectious pustular vulvovaginitis

obovis
Contributor(s):

Alan Murphy

Mike Reynolds

Synonym(s): IPV, Infectious balanoposthitis (IBP)


Introduction

  • Cause:
    • Bovine herpes virus 1.
    • Exposure predominantly coitus but mechanical transmission also possible.
    • It does not arise from viremia from respiratory infections (IBR).
  • Signs:
    • Often subclinical.
    • May include pyrexia, milk drop, increased micturition, lesions on the vaginal mucosa, on the body of the penis, localized edema and purulent discharge.
  • Diagnosis: based on clinical signs, history of exposure and laboratory findings.
  • Treatment: supportive
  • Prognosis: the likelihood of a complete resolution of the infection cannot be assured.

Distribution

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Typically, respiratory (IBR) and genital disease incidents of Herpes Virus-1 do not occur concurrently.

Predisposing factors

  • Poor biosecurity.
  • Use of natural service.
  • Stress leading to viral recrudescence, such as parturition, metabolic disease and transport.

Pathophysiology

  • Incubation period is 1-3 days.
  • The vaginal, vulval and penile mucosa becomes hyperemic with focal hemorrhages.
  • Focal lesions replace the hemorrhages, comprising of 2-3 mm diameter pock like lesions which are raised and friable.
  • The virus is epitheliotropic, causing ballooning and degeneration of epithelial cells.
  • The cells undergo necrosis with concurrent neutrophil infiltration. This coincides with the development of a purulent discharge.
  • Infection starts to resolve by 8 days.
  • The virus may become latent in the sacral ganglia and as such the animal is at risk from recrudescence.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code (2019) Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis/infectious pustular vulvovaginitis. Chapter 11.8. Website: www.oie.int.
  • Akestedt J, Jonsson M & Mork T (2017) The surveillance programme for infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) and infectious pustular Vulvovaginitis (IPV) in Norway 2016. Norway Veterinary Institute.
  • Fulton R W et al (2015) Bovine Herpesvirus -1: Evaluation of genetic diversity of subtypes derived from field strains of varied clinical syndromes and their relationship to vaccine strains. Vaccine 33 (4), 549-558 PubMed.
  • Graham D A (2013) Bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1) in cattle - a review with emphasis on reproductive impacts and the emergence of infection in Ireland and the United Kingdom. Ir Vet J 66 (1), 15 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Jubb, Kennedy & Palmer (2007) Volume 3: Female Genital System and Male Genital System. 5th Edn. Ed: Grant Maxie M. Saunders, UK.

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