Bovis ISSN 2398-2993

Hydrops allantois

Synonym(s): Hydrallantois, Hydrops uteri

Contributor(s): Karin Mueller , John Cook

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Introduction

  • Cause: likely caused by a combination of fetal and maternal factors.
  • Signs: bilateral ventral abdominal distension.
  • Diagnosis: clinical signs, rectal examination, ultrasonography and/or allantocentesis.
  • Treatment: supportive care, induction of labor, elective cesarean section, percutaneous or trans-cervical drainage of allantoic fluid or euthanasai.
  • Prognosis: poor to guarded.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Placental abnormality, in particular of the maternal caruncles.
  • Likely caused by a combination of fetal and maternal factors.
  • Concurrent fetal abnormalities are reported, but their role in the etiology is not fully understood. Such abnormalities include cleft palate, pituitary hypoplasia and bulldog calf syndrome and fetal polyuria.
  • Also described in association with IVF-induced large offspring syndrome.

Pathophysiology

  • Placentomes often show degenerative changes, and there may be placental edema.
  • Allantoic fluid volume can be 10x normal, ie up to about 200 l.
  • Hydrops allantois and hydrops amnion may occur concurrently (about 5% of cases).

Timecourse

  • Fluid accumulation is relatively rapid over just a few weeks, typically from mid-gestation onwards.

Epidemiology

  • Tends to occur sporadically, with occasional clustering in a herd.
  • Estimated to affect about 1 in 7,500-10,000 gestations.
  • Hydrops allantois is 9-15 times more common than hydrops amnion.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Drost M (2007) Complications during gestation in the cow. Theriogenology 68 (3) 487-491 PubMed.

Organisation(s)


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