ISSN 2398-2993      

Cleft lip

obovis
Contributor(s):

Eilidh Thomson

Mike Reynolds

Synonym(s): Hare lip


Introduction

  • Cause: congenital.
  • Signs: unilateral/bilateral in the upper lip.
  • Diagnosis: clinical exam.
  • Treatment: see below.
  • Prognosis: guarded especially if associated with cleft palate.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Clefts occur as the result of a failure in closure of facial processes such as frontonasal, maxillary and facial processes.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Autosomal recessive gene in the Hereford Hereford and Charolais Charolais breeds associated with arthrogryposis and palatoschisis.
  • May occur singly in other breeds.

Specific

  • Environmental factors during the early gestation period:
    • Hypervitaminosis A Vitamins: overview.
    • Folic acid deficiency.
    • Administration of griseofulvin (anti-fungal used to treat ringworm) Ringworm.Griseofulvin is no longer licensed for food producing animals in the EU.
    • Ingestion of toxic plants, eg lupine Lupine poisoning and poison hemlock Hemlock poisoning during early gestation.

Pathophysiology

  • The congenital abnormality that leads to the inappropriate fusion of the median nasal and maxillary processes will cause a single or double cleft lip either side of midline. It is often associated with a cleft palate.

Timecourse

  • Lifelong condition.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Abdelhakiem M A H & Abdelhakam M S (2016) Cleft lip (hare lip), Campylorrhinus lateralis (wry nose) and congenital flexural deformity of the metacarpophalangeal joints in a calf. In: Proc Scientific Research and the Development of Livestock ResearchGate.
  • Wheat J D (1960) Harelip in Shorthorn cattle. J Heredity 51 (2), 99-101 OxfordAcademic.

Other sources of information

  • Aiello S E & Moses M A (2018) The Merck Veterinary Manual. 11th edn. Merck & Co Inc, USA. ISBN: 978-0911910612.
  • Boden E (2005) Ed Black’s Veterinary Dictionary. 21st edn. ISBN: 978-0713663624.

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