ISSN 2398-2993       Transformation '' not found.

Pseudocowpox virus

obovis
Contributor(s):

Veronica Fowler

Tammy Hassel

Synonym(s): parapoxvirus, PCPV


Introduction

Classification

Taxonomy

  • Family: poxviridae.
  • Sub-family: chordopoxvirinae.
  • Genus: parapoxvirus.
  • Species: pseudocowpox virus (PCPV).

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Clinical Effects

Epidemiology

Transmission

  • Cattle become infected during exposure to another infected cow (direct) or via contaminated milking equipment/personnel/calves sucking/flies (indirect).
  • Infection is normally introduced into a herd through infected cattle and then spreads slowly.

Pathological effects

  • Parapoxviruses are epitheliotropic viruses which cause nonsystemic, vesicular and eruptive skin disease.
  • Infection occurs through damaged skin, followed by viral replication in keratinocytes.
  • Pseudocowpox virus infection results in small, raised papules on the teats and udders of cattle. Vesicles, scabs and modules then develop which form a characteristic ring or horseshoe shape. Lesions may also appear on the muzzle of calves suckling infected cattle.
  • Scabs will detach within a few days and healing is fast.
  • Protective immunity acquired post infection is short lived and animals can become infected again.

Control

Control via animal

  • Lesions are usually self-limiting.
  • Use of teat dips post milking.
  • Quarantine newly bought cattle.
  • Antiseptics and emollient ointment can be applied to affected teats.

Control via environment

  • Implementation of good hygiene during milking.
  • Scabs which have been manually removed should be burned to avoid contaminating the environment.

Diagnosis

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Pedro A Alves, Poliana O Figueiredo et al (2016) Occurrence of Pseudocowpox virus associated to Bovine viral diarrhea virus-1, Brazilian Amazon. Comp Immunol, Microbiol Infect Dis 49, 70-75 PubMed.
  • Oğuzoğlu T Ç, Koç B T, Kirdeci A & Tan M T (2014) Evidence of zoonotic pseudocowpox virus infection from a cattle in Turkey. Virus Disease 25 (3), 381-384 PubMed.
  • Zhao H, Wilkins K, Damon I K & Li Y (2013) Specific qPCR assays for the detection of orf virus, pseudocowpox virus and bovine papular stomatitis virus. J Virol Methods 194, 229-234 PubMed.
  • Cargnelutti J F, Flores M M, Teixeira F R, Weiblen R & Flores E F (2012) An outbreak of pseudocowpox in fattening calves in southern Brazil. J Vet Diagn Invest 24 (2), 437-41 PubMed.
  • Giesecke W H, Theodorides A & Els H J (1971) Pseudo-cowpox (paravaccinia) in dairy cows. J S Afr Vet Med Assoc 42 (2), 193-4 PubMed.
  • Cheville N F & Shey D J (1967) Pseudocowpox in dairy cattle. JAVMA 150 (8), 855-61 PubMed.

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