ISSN 2398-2993       Transformation '' not found.

Bovine herpes virus: type 1 (IBR)

obovis
Contributor(s):

Veronica Fowler

Tammy Hassel

Synonym(s): Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis


Introduction

Classification

Taxonomy

  • Order: herpesvirales.
  • Family: herpesviridae.
  • Subfamily: alphaherpesvirinae.
  • Genus: varicellovirus.
  • Species: bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1).

Active Forms

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Clinical Effects

Epidemiology

Habitat

  • Pathogen of cattle.

Transmission

  • The virus is shed in respiratory tract secretions and is also present in bull semen.
  • Aborted fetuses can also be sources of infection.
  • Larger herds have more 'transmission contacts'. 
  • Sheep and goats can become infected and may transmit to cattle (although this is not considered significant).

Pathological effects

  • Incubation period is 2-20 days.
  • IBR manifests in two forms; respiratory and genital.
  • For subtype 1.1:
    • viral replication occurs in the mucus membranes of the upper respiratory tract.
    • It can also enter the nerve cells to establish latent infection.
    • If pregnant cows become viremic they can abort the calf Abortion and stillbirths.
  • For subtype 1.2:
    • virus replication occurs in the mucous membranes of the vagina or prepuce.
    • The virus can also enter the sacral ganglia which results in latent infection.
    • Large ulcers can arise from tissue necrosis.
    • Endometritis is possible from secondary bacterial infection.
    • Abortion is unlikely to occur due to infection with subtype 1.2.

Control

Control via animal

  • Vaccination. Respiratory vaccines
  • Cattle demonstrating clinical signs should be quarantined/slaughtered.
  • Avoid purchase of antibody positive cattle.
  • Test and slaughter/removal of seropositive cattle.

Control via chemotherapies

Control via environment

Vaccination

  • A range of inactivated, subunit and live vaccines are available.
  • Vaccination can prevent severity of disease but does not protect against latent infection.
  • Live vaccination may cause abortion and therefore should not be given to pregnant cattle.

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Raaperi K, Orro T & Viltrop A (2014) Epidemiology and control of bovine herpesvirus 1 infection in Europe. Vet J 201 (3), 249-56 PubMed.
  • Graham D A (2013) Bovine herpes virus-1 (BoHV-1) in cattle–a review with emphasis on reproductive impacts and the emergence of infection in Ireland and the United Kingdom. Irish Veterinary Journal 66 (1), 15 PubMed.
  • Mahajan V, Banga H S, Deka D, Filia G & Gupta A (2013) Comparison of diagnostic tests for diagnosis of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis in natural cases of bovine abortion. Journal of Comparative Pathology 149 (4), 391-401 VetMedResource.
  • Nandi S, Kumar M, Manohar M & Chauhan R S (2009) Bovine herpes virus infections in cattle. Anim Health Res Rev 10 (1), 85-98 PubMed.

Organisation(s)

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!