ISSN 2398-2993       Transformation '' not found.

Astrovirus

obovis
Contributor(s):

Vetstream Ltd

Al Manning

Synonym(s): Neurotropic encephalitis, Non-suppurative encephalitis, Sporadic encephalitis


Introduction

Classification

Taxonomy

  • The Astroviridae family contains non-enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses within two genera:
    • Mamastrovirus: infect mammals.
    • Avastrovirus: infect birds.
  • The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses currently recognizes 19 species (Mamastrovirus-1 through -19), within the Mamastrovirus genus. There are numerous strains awaiting classification, some of which may be new species.

Etymology

  • Astro: from the Greek word for “star”.

Active Forms

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Clinical Effects

Epidemiology

Transmission

  • Thought to be feco-oral.

Pathological effects

  • Clinical signs may include:
    • Progressive neurological signs, including:
      • Unusual behavior.
      • Aimless walking.
      • Circling. 
      • Ataxia.
      • Repetitive and uncoordinated tongue movements.
      • Seizures.
      • Recumbency.
  • Duration of clinical signs may range from 1 day to 3 weeks.

Other Host Effects

  • Histological examination of infected brain may reveal:
    • Moderate to severe, lymphocytic, histiocytic and plasmacytic meningoencephalomyelitis.
    • Perivascular cuffing and lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic inflammation and neuronal necrosis/neuronophagia with gliosis in the adjacent neuropil.
    • Satellitosis of affected, necrotic neurons.

Control

Control via environment

  • Good biosecurity and hygiene are important given the likelihood of feco-oral transmission.
  • Astroviruses are resistant to many disinfectants and so products should be chosen carefully.

Vaccination

  • None available.

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Giannitti F et al (2019) The first case of bovine astrovirus-associated encephalitis in the Southern hemisphere (Uruguay), uncovers evidence of viral introduction to the Americas from Europe. Front Microbiol 10, 1240 PubMed.
  • Spinato M T et al (2017) Identification of bovine astrovirus in cases of bovine non-suppurative encephalitis in eastern Canada. Can Vet J 58 (6), 607-609 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • CABI International (2019) Astrovirus Infections. In: Invasive Species Compendium. Website: www.cabi.org.

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!

 
 
 
 

To show you are not a Bot please can you enter the number showing adjacent to this field

 Security code