ISSN 2398-2993       Transformation '' not found.

Actinobacillus lignieresii

obovis
Contributor(s):

Veronica Fowler

Tammy Hassel

Synonym(s): Wooden tongue causal organism


Introduction

Classification

Taxonomy

  • Kingdom: bacteria.
  • Phylum: proteobacteria.
  • Class: gammaproteobacteria.
  • Order: pasteurellales.
  • Family: pasteurellaceae.
  • Genus: actinobacillus.
  • Species: actinobacillus lignieresii.

Etymology

  • aktis -inos (Greek) – “Ray”, bacillus (Latin) – “Rod”.
  • Actinobacillus lignieresii is named after the scientist J. Lignières who together with G. Spitz, first isolated the organism in 1904.

Active Forms

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Clinical Effects

Epidemiology

Habitat

  • Found as a commensal bacteria of the upper respiratory and alimentary tract of cattle. 

Lifecycle

  • Cells divide by binary fission to produce pairs.

Transmission

  • Can lead to disease when entering the body through abrasions or cuts in the buccal mucosa.

Pathological effects

  • Hardening and swelling of the tongue causing it to protrude from the mouth (a condition known as ‘wooden tongue’).
  • Hard swollen lesion in other tissues of the head and neck, particularly the gums and cheeks.
  • Infection can disseminate to the lymph nodes and can spread to the lungs.
  • Virulence factors of A. lignieresii are unknown; however the characteristic lesions are caused by a granulomatous reaction due to a cell-mediated immune response within the epithelial cells.
  • Affected cattle may salivate profusely.
  • Affected animals are unable to eat or swallow resulting in a loss of condition.

Control

Control via animal

  • Isolate and treat clinically affected animals.
  • Surgical draining of the lesions may be required if breathing is impaired.

Control via chemotherapies

  • Oral Potassium Potassium iodide or intravenous injection of Sodium Sodium iodide can be effective.
  • Usually susceptible to Penicillin Penicillin and Streptomycin Streptomycin antibiotics in combination; and also potentiated sulphonamide antibiotics.

Control via environment

  • Prevention of actinobacillos in ruminants primarily relies on avoidance of poor quality, coarse, feedstuffs and pastures containing plants with sharp stems or thorns (eg thistles).

Vaccination

  • There is no vaccine available to prevent infection with A. lignieresii.

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Cahalan S D, Sheridan L, Akers C R, Lorenz I & Cassidy J (2012) Atypical cutaneous actinobacillosis in young beef cattle. Vet Rec 171 (15), 375 PubMed.
  • Christensen H & Bisgaard M (2004) Revised definition of Actinobacillus sensu stricto isolated from animals. A review with special emphasis on diagnosis. Vet Microbiol 99 (1), 13-30 PubMed.
  • Dhand N K, Sandhu K S, Singh J & Randhawa S S (2003) Outbreak of actinobacillosis in dairy cows. Vet Rec 153 (9), 280 PubMed.
  • Rycroft A N & Garside (2000) L H Actinobacillus species and their role in animal disease. Vet J 159 (1), 18-36 PubMed.
  • Nakazawa M, Azuma R, Yamashita T, Iwao T & Uchimura M (1977) Collective outbreaks of bovine actinobacillosis. Nihon Juigaku Zasshi 39 (5), 549-557 PubMed.
  • Campbell S G, Whitlock trh, Timoney J F & Underwood A M (1975) An unusual epizootic of actinobacillosis in dairy heifers. JAVMA 166 (6), 604-606 PubMed.

Related Images

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!

 
 
 
 

To show you are not a Bot please can you enter the number showing adjacent to this field

 Security code