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Hemipenal plugs

The cause of hemipenal plugs is unknown, although it is believed that the lack of reproductive behavior, eg lack of hemipenal eversion/lack of ejaculation, facilitates accumulation of cellular debris into the sulci of the hemipenes and the formation of plugs. Only Squamata (lizards and snakes) have hemipenes.

Written by David Perpiñán DVM MSc PhD DipECZM(Herpetology) MRCVS
Reviewed by Robert Johnson BVSc MANZCVS(Feline Med) CertZooMed BA

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In guinea pigs, causes of pneumonia can be bacterial or viral, including Bordetella bronchiseptica (most common), Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. zooepidemicus, S. pyogenes, Streptobacillus moniliformis, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Hemophilus spp, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pasteurella multocida, Staphylococcus aureus, Adenovirus, and Parainfluenza virus (rare).

Written by Cathy Johnson-Delaney DVM
Reviewed by Sarah Pellett VetMB CertAVP(ZooMed) BA BSc(Hons) DZooMed

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Ferret hemorrhagic syndrome

The cause of this condition in ferrets in unknown, but most ferrets present due to the presence of large amounts of blood in the cage or from unexplained epistaxis. Bleeding may stop and spontaneously recur at any time. Some ferrets may have bleeding from other mucosal surfaces, such as the mouth or rectum, and severe cases may develop petechiation/ecchymosis or internal hemorrhage

Written by Cathy Johnson-Delaney DVM
Reviewed by David Perpiñán DVM MSc PhD DipECZM(Herpetology) MRCVS

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