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Vasculitis is a general pathological term for inflammation of blood vessels of any type and location regardless of etiology. It is caused by immune-mediated hypersensitivity; infection (EVA, EIA, anaplasma, EHV); toxin (including drug-induced); hepatopathy; photo-activated; neoplasia. Prognosis is fair with early and aggressive therapy; depends on underlying cause.

Updated by Jamie Prutton BSc(Hons) BVSc DipACVIM DipECEIM MRCVS

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Bursoscopy is the commonly used term for intrathecal endoscopy of the synovial bursae. These are synovial sacs placed between moving structures and points of pressure such as bony prominences. They can be congenital (develop before birth and are located in constant positions, which may be subfascial, subligamentous, submuscular, or subtendinous), or acquired bursae (formed after birth, often over osseous prominences, subcutaneous and formed by synovial metaplasia within encapsulated seromas or hematomata). All bursae are amenable to arthroscopic evaluation with standard arthroscopic equipment and techniques.

Updated by Graham Murnoe BVSc(Hons) PhD CertEO DESM DipECVS FRCVS

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Physeal fracture and repair

Physeal fractures of the femur accounted for 30% of all physeal fractures in one study. Fractures are caused by trauma, usually a fall with adduction or abduction of the limb; relatively common in foals. Prognosis is fair at best, depending on age of foal and degree of bone loss. Internal fixation is necessary to restore function and normal limb length. 75% of femoral fractures in foals are comminuted.

Updated by Jarred Williams MS DVM PhD DipACVS-LA DipACVECC

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