Transvenous cardioversion (TVEC) is a complex procedure used for the treatment of atrial fibrillation in horses. This is a procedure that requires trained personnel with a high degree of specialist knowledge. Prognosis following treatment is generally good and will return the horse to its previous level of performance if the sinus rhythm is maintained.
Written by Lesley Young BVSc PhD DVA DipECVA DVC MRCVS & Karen Blissitt BVSc DVA PhD DipECVA MRCVS
Reviewed by Romain Pariaut DVM DipACVIM DipECVIM-CA
In horses, this is as a rare, benign, cartilage-capped tumor attached to bone, usually by a bony stalk. It may result from separation of a portion of the metaphyseal growth plate margin leading to an island of chondrogenic tissue that is capable of endochondral ossification, carried into the metaphysis during growth of the bone. This leads to a cartilage-capped mushroom or sessile exostosis that projects from the metaphyseal surface.
Updated by Anna Hollis BVetMed DipACVIM DipECEIM MRCVS
Failure of the testis to develop to normal size, accompanied by failure of the epididymis to reach normal size. This is normally evidenced by failure of pre-pubertal testes to develop at puberty. Sometimes even pre-pubertal testes may be noticeably underdeveloped. Can be unilateral or bilateral.
Updated by Madeleine Campbell BVetMed(Hons) MA(Oxon) MA(Keele) PhD DipECAR DipECAWBM(AWSEL) PGCertVetEd MRCVS