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Possible causes of colitis include enteric salmonellosis, clostridial diarrhea (Clostridium difficile, Clostridium perfringens), Potomac Horse Fever (Equine monocytic ehrlichiosis), antibiotic-associated diarrhea, cyathostomiasis, sand enteropathy, carbohydrate overload, right dorsal colitis, intoxication (eg Blister beetle (cantharidin), castor oil, hoary alyssum, arsenic), and infiltrative/inflammatory bowel disease. Treatment is dependent upon primary etiology, and prognosis is dependent upon primary etiology and patient status.

Updated by Jamie Prutton BSc(Hons) BVSc DipACVIM DipECEIM MRCVS

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Estrus suppression

Altrenogest is the most common treatment for estrus suppression in mares. Altrenogest is a synthetic progestin that is highly effective at suppressing estrus in the mare. Behavioral signs associated with estrus should be abolished within 1-3 days of initiating treatment.

Written by Madeleine Campbell BVetMed MA BA DipECAR PhD DipECAWBM(AWSEL) MRCVS
Reviewed by Camilla Scott BVetMed CertAVP(ESM) DipACT MRCVS

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Head trephination

Surgical exploration of the paranasal sinuses can be obtained by either trephination or bone flap techniques. Trephination is the traditional technique, but has some disadvantages which has lead to the increasing use of bone flap techniques for sinus surgery. Trephination can be used to create portals for endoscopic examination within sinuses (sinuscopy).

Updated by Jarred Williams DVM PhD DipACVS DipACVECC

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