Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Ovariohysterectomy

Synonym(s): OHE, spay, neuter

Contributor(s): Daniel Smeak, Dick White, Rosa Ragni

Introduction

  • Excision of ovaries and uterus - normally performed simultaneously.

Uses

Elective

  • Prevention of estrus.
  • Control of breeding by sterilization.
  • Prophylaxis of mammary neoplasia Mammary gland: neoplasia if performed early - preferably before the first heat.
  • Reduced prevalence of acquired inguinal hernias.

Ovarian disease

Uterine disease - non-gravid

Uterine disease - gravid

Vaginal disease

Systemic disorders

Advantages

  • Relatively safe procedure. Significantly reduces incidence of mammary gland tumors (the most common kind of cancer in dogs) if performed early.

Disadvantages

  • May predispose to urinary incontinence and obesity.

Requirements

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Preparation

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Procedure

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Aftercare

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Outcomes

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Prognosis

  • Good when electively performed in healthy animal.

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Watts J (2018) The use of bipolar electrosurgical forceps for haemostasis in open surgical ovariectomy of bitches and queens and castration of dogs. JSAP 59 (8), 465-473 PubMed.
  • Sundburg C R, Belanger J M, Bannasch D L et al (2016) Gonadectomy effects on the risk of immune disorders in the dog: a retrospective study. BMC Vet Res 12 (1), 278 PubMed
  • Leitch B J, Bray J P, Kim N J (2012) Pedicle ligation in ovariohysterectomy: an in vitro study of ligation techniques. JSAP 53 (10), 592-598 PubMed.
  • Ball R L, Birchard S J, May L R et al (2010) Ovarian remnant syndrome in dogs and cats: 21 cases (2000–2007). JAVMA 236 (5), 548-553 PubMed.
  • Miller D M (1995) Ovarian remnant syndrome in dogs and cats: 46 cases (1988-1992). J Vet Diagn Invest (4), 572-574 PubMed.
  • Wallace M S (1991) The ovarian remnant syndrome in the bitch and queen. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 21 (3), 501-507 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Fingland R B, Waldron D R (2014) Ovariohysterectomy.  In: Current techniques in Small Animal Surgery. 5th edn. Ed M J Bojrab. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins
  • Fransson B A (2012) Ovaries and uterus. In: Veterinary Surgery Small Animal. 1st edn. Tobias K M & Johnston S A (eds). Philadelphia, Elsevier Saunders, pp 5657-5737.
  • Tobias K M (2010) Ovariohysterectomy. In: Manual of Small Animal Soft Tissue Surgery. Hoboken, Wiley-Blackwell, pp 241-254.
  • Hedlund C S (2007) Surgery of the Reproductive and Genital Systems. In: Small Animal Surgery. 3rd edn. Fossum T W (ed) St. Louis, Mosby Elsevier, pp 702-774.


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