Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Trachea: hypoplasia

Contributor(s): Simon Tappin

Introduction

  • Cause: normal rigid tracheal rings but narrow diameter.
  • Signs: dyspnea may be seen at a few weeks old if severe, eg if other obstructing conditions. Exercise intolerance.
  • Diagnosis: clinical signs and radiology.
  • Treatment: supportive, surgery for other components of brachycephalic airway obstruction syndrome but not without risk.
  • Seen in Bulldog Bulldog. May remain subclinical in adult until exacerbated by brachycephalic airway obstruction syndrome Brachycephalic airway obstruction syndrome.
  • Prognosis: generally good in mild cases as many animals subclinical; may improve with age.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Pathophysiology

  • Inadequate growth of tracheal rings leads to narrow diameter tracheal rings → reduced airway diameter → dyspnea.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Clarke D L, Holt D E & King L G (2011) Partial resolution of hypoplastic trachea in six English Bulldog puppies with bronchopneumonia. JAAHA 47 (5), 329-335 PubMed.
  • Reed S D & Evans D E (2009) Tracheal hypoplasia with a discrete subaortic septal ridge in a Rottweiler puppy. J Vet Diagn Invest 21 (1), 117-119 PubMed.
  • Harvey C E & Fink E A (1982) Tracheal diameter: analysis in brachycephalic and non-brachycephalic dogs. JAAHA 18, 570-576 AGRIS FAO.

Other sources of information

  • Sura P A & Durant A M (2012)Trachea and Bronchi.In:Veterinary Surgery Small Animal.Tobias K M & Johnston S A (eds). St Louis, Elsevier Saunders, pp 1736.
  • Suter P F (1984)A Text Atlas of Thoracic diseases of the Dog and Cat.Wettswil, Switzerland, pp238-240.


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