Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Spleen: trauma

Contributor(s): Andrew Gardiner, Elisa Mazzaferro, James Simpson

Introduction

  • Cause: blunt, eg RTA, or penetrating, eg gunshot injury to the abdomen.
  • Signs: can be sudden in onset (massive injury) or progressive in nature.
  • The most serious consequence of splenic injury is hemorrhage, which may be life-threatening.
  • Diagnosis: can sometimes be problematical. A high index of suspicion of this condition should be maintained in traumatized animals.
  • Treatment: fluid therapy, oxygen administration, blood transfusion, partial or total splenectomy.
  • Prognosis: fair, provided initial stabilization is successful and there are no other internal injuries.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Trauma, blunt (most common) or penetrating.

Pathophysiology

  • Rupture of the splenic parenchyma or avulsion of splenic blood vessels results in hemorrhage and hemoperitoneum.
  • Encapsulated parenchymal hemorrhage, ie hematoma.
  • Blood loss leads to hypoxemia and hypovolemic shock Shock.

Timecourse

  • Rapid (massive parenchymatous damage or vascular avulsion) or progressive (smaller lesions which nevertheless continue to bleed).

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Streeter E M, Rozanski E A, de LaForcase-Buress A, Freeman L M, Rush J E (2009) Evaluation of vehicular trauma in dogs: 239 cases (January-December 2001). JAVMA 235 (4), 405-408 PubMed.
  • Boysen S R, Rozanski E A, Tidwell A S, Holm J L, Shaw S P, Rush J E (2004) Evaluation of a focused assessment with sonography for trauma protocol to detect free abdominal fluid in dogs involved in motor vehicle accidents. JAVMA 225 (8), 1198-1204 PubMed.
  • Vinavak A & Krahwinkel D J (2004) Managing blunt trauma-induced hemoperitoneum in dogs and cats. Comp Contin Educ Pract Vet 26 (4), 276 VetMedResource.
  • Anderson D M, Stidworthy M, James R & White R A S (2000) Traumatic subcutaneous translocation of the spleen in an Old English sheepdog. JSAP 41 (11), 515-518 PubMed.
  • Monjil C M, Drobatz K J, Hendricks J C (1995) Traumatic hemoperitoneum in 28 cases - a retrospective review. JAAHA 31 (3), 217-222 PubMed.


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