Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Skin: malassezia disease

Synonym(s): Malassezia pachydermatis, Pityrosporum canis

Contributor(s): Ross Bond, Rosanna Marsella, Ian Mason

Introduction

  • Cause:Malassezia pachydermatis Malassezia pachydermatis (previously Pityrosporum canis) is frequent yet underdiagnosed cause of fungal skin disease, also has role in otitis externa Skin: otitis externa.
  • Defective cutaneous defence may allow infection to occur Skin: bacterial skin disease - overview.
  • Signs: pruritus, erythema, alopecia, greasy, malodorous skin, lichenification.
  • Diagnosis: cytopathology.
  • Treatment: antifungal therapy.
  • Prognosis: good, lifelong therapy may be required. Recurrence is common if underlying cause is not identified.
    Print off the owner factsheet on Malassezia Malassezia to give to your client.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Predisposing factors

General

  • Breed.
  • Underlying disease.
  • Hypersensitivity disorders.

Specific

  • Steroid therapy.
  • Antibiotic therapy.

Pathophysiology

  • Unclear.
  • Normal skin is resistant to M. pachydermatis infection.
  • Primary cause +/- genetic factor → lowered skin resistance → spread of organism from normal reservoirs (anal mucosa, lips, ears) → clinical disease Skin: bacterial skin disease - overview.
  • Hypersensitivity to Malassezia has been reported in atopic dogs. Thus increased number is not necessary to cause disease.

Timecourse

  • Variable.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Jackson H (1999) Common cutaneous diseases of the canine foot. In Practice 21 (2), 54-61 VetMedResource.
  • Morris D O, Olivier N B, Rosser E J (1998) Type-1 hypersensitivity reactions to Malassezia pachydermatitis extracts in atopic dogs. Am J Vet Res 59 (7), 836-841 PubMed.
  • Mauldin E A, Scott D W, Miller W H & Smith C A (1997) Malassezia dermatitis in the dog - a retrospective histopathological and immunopathological study of 86 cases (1990-1995). Vet Derm 8 (3), 191-202 Wiley Online Library.
  • Kuhl K A (1996) Newly reported skin diseases. Vet Med 91 (11), 1007-1020 VetMedResource.
  • Morris D O (1990) Malassezia dermatitis and otitis. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 29 (6), 1303-1310 PubMed.


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