Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Skin: histiocytoma

Contributor(s): Rosanna Marsella, Richard Squires

Introduction

  • Benign tumor of the skin, common in dogs, rare in other species.
  • Accounts for up to 14% of all skin tumors in dogs.
  • Signs: usually solitary, occasionally multiple. There is an extremely rare form which is malignant.
  • Diagnosis: history, clinical signs, cytopathology.
  • Treatment: surgical excision.
  • Prognosis: excellent; if incomplete resection, can recur.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Unknown.

Specific

  • Age - usually young dogs <2 years of age.

Pathophysiology

  • Benign tumor arising from tissue macrophages (Langerhans cells) in skin.
  • Accounts for 3-14% of all canine skin tumors, phenotypically and histologically distinct from cutaneous and systemic histiocytosis, which is a reactive inflammatory process.
  • Proliferation of tissue histiocytes, usually benign, often single nodule, but can be multiple.
  • Many regress spontaneously, and show lymphocytic infiltrate as they regress.
  • During period of regression, often ulcerate.
  • In small percentage of cases, seen in young dogs, they have shown malignant behavior and internal tumors have also been present.
  • Histiocytic proliferative dermatitis is a related condition where multiple lesions are present, most frequently seen in young Golden Retrievers; described as multiple erythematous dermal or subcutaneous plaques or nodules, which wax and wane with time.

Timecourse

  • Weeks to months.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Other sources of information

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Kipar A, Baumg√§rter W, Kremmer E, Frese K & Weiss E (1998) Expression of major histocompatability complex class II antigen in neoplastic cells of canine cutaneous histiocytoma. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 62 (1), 1-13 PubMed.
  • Moore P F, Schrenzel M D, Affolter V K, Olivry T and Nayden D (1996) Canine cutaneous histiocytoma is an epridermatrophic Langerhans cell histiocytosis that expresses CD1 and specific beta 2-integrin molecules. Am J Pathol 148 (5), 1699-1708 PubMed.
  • Withrow S J & MacEwen E G (1996) Small Animal Clinical Oncology. Small animal clinical oncology 2, 592 VetMedResource.
  • Marchal T, Dezutter-Dambuyant C, Fournal C, Magnol J P & Schmitt D (1995) Immunophenotypic and ultrastructural evidence of the Langerhans cell origin of the canine cutaneous histiocytoma. Acta Anat (Basel) 153 (3), 189-202 PubMed.
  • Marchal T, Dezutter-Dambuyant C, Fournal C, Magnol J P & Schmitt D (1995) Electromicroscopic study of canine cutaneous histiocytoma - a benign Langerhans cell tumour. Adv Exp Med Biol 378, 549-551 PubMed.
  • Bender W M & Muller G H (1989) Multiple, resolving, cutaneous histiocytoma in a dog. JAVMA 194 (4), 535-577 PubMed.


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