Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Obesity

Synonym(s): Fat, energy excess, diet

Contributor(s): Marge Chandler, Alexander German

Introduction

  • Excess body weight is one of the most common medical diseases of dogs. Dogs are overweight when their weight is >15% optimal (determind by a condition score - see below).
  • Cause: accumulation of adipose tissue, invariably due to calorie intake in excess of individual animal's requirements. The relative ease of weight gain may depend upon other factors, eg signalment, genetics, lifestyle, owner factors.
  • Signs: depend on severity; increases risk of developing associated diseases, eg osteoarthritis, diabetes mellitus, urinary tract disease, cardiorespiratory disease, neoplasia.
  • Diagnosis: bodyweight and body condition score; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in some cases.
  • Treatment: educate owner, change diet, increase exercise, drug therapy.
  • Prognosis: depends on severity and duration.
Print off the owner factsheet Obesity Obesity to give to your client.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Excess energy intake → excess adipose tissue deposition.
  • 1% calorie excess on a daily basis → obesity by middle-age.

Predisposing factors

General
  • Endocrinopathies, eg hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism , hyperadrenocorticism Hyperadrenocorticism.
  • Decreased activity through concurrent disease (eg orthopedic) limiting activity.

Specific

  • Feeding regime: type of food, owner behavior.
  • Ad-libitumfeeding methods in some individual animals.
  • High fat, highly palatable table-scraps and titbits → overeating.
  • Some medications, eg corticosteroids and phenobarbital Phenobarbital increases appetite.
  • Owner lifestyle.
  • Obesity in the owners.

Pathophysiology

  • Excess energy intake → excess adipose tissue deposition.

Timecourse

  • Depends on degree of energy intake excess.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • German A J, Holden S L, Bissot T, Hackett R M, Biourge V (2007) Dietary energy restriction and successful weight loss in obese client-owned dogs. JVIM 21 (6), 1174-1180 PubMed.
  • Weber M, Bissot T, Servet E, Sergheraert R, Biourge V, German A J (2007) A high protein, high fiber diet designed for weight loss improves satiety in dogs. JVIM 21 (6), 1203-1208 PubMed.
  • German A J (2006) The growing problem of obesity in dogs and cats. J Nutr 136 (Suppl 7), 1940S-1946S PubMed.
  • Lund E M, Armstrong P J, Kirk C A, Klausner J F (2006) Prevalance and risk factors for obesity in adult dogs from private US veterinary practices. Intern J Appl Res Vet Med 4 (2), 177-186 VetMedResource.
  • McGreevy P D, Thomson P C, Pride A, Fawcett A, Grassi T & Jones B (2005) Prevalence of obesity in dogs examined by Australian veterinary practices and the risk factors involved. Vet Rec 156 (22), 695-702 PubMed.
  • Laflamme D (1997) Development and validation of a body condition score system for dogs. Canine Pract 22, 10-15 AGRIS FAO.

Other sources of information


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