Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Lung: chronic pulmonary interstitial disease

Synonym(s): Interstitial lung disease, interstitial idiopathic pneumonias, diffuse parenchymal lung disease, fibrotic interstitial lung disease

Contributor(s): Lynelle Johnson, Rachel Blake

Introduction

  • A group of non-infectious, non-neoplastic diseases characterized by inflammation and/or fibrosis of the interstitium of the lung.
  • Cause: can be primary or secondary to hematogenous or inhaled irritants.
  • Signs: tachypnea, exercise intolerance, variable coughing.
  • Diagnosis: difficult. Radiography and CT can be suggestive. Definitive diagnosis requires lung biopsy.
  • Treatment: manage clinical signs and secondary pulmonary hypertension.
  • Prognosis: variable response to therapy, tends to progress respiratory failure.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Primary/idiopathic.
  • Secondary:
    • Inhaled irritants, eg dust, asbestos, silicosis, fumes, allergens.
    • Hematogenous insults, eg drugs, immune-mediated, systemic disease.
  • Miscellaneous, eg radiation therapy.
  • Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a familial interstitial lung disease in West Highland White Terriers.

Pathophysiology

  • Pulmonary fibrosis is the end-stage lesion for many different disease processes.
  • Chronic lung injury triggers inflammation and fibrosis resulting in irreversible damage to the lung interstitium. The alveoli and bronchi may also be affected.
  • The overall effect is impairment of gas exchange and a reduction in lung compliance, which reduces inspiratory capacity and the animal's ability to increase tidal volume when necessary.

Timecourse

  • Months to years.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Reinero C (2019) Interstitial lung diseases in dogs and cats part I: The idiopathic interstitial pnemonias. Vet J 243, 48-54 PubMed
  • Reinero C (2019) Interstitial lung diseases in dogs and cats part II: Known cause and other discrete forms. Vet J 243, 55-64 PubMed.
  • Koster LS and Kirberger RM (2016) A syndrome of severe idiopathic pulmonary parenchymal disease with pulmonary hypertension in Pekingese. Vet Med (Auckl) 7, 19-23 PubMed.
  • Lobetti R G, Milner R & Lane E (2001) Chronic idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in five dogs. JAAHA 37 (2), 119-127 PubMed.
  • Corcoran B, Dukes-McEwan J, Rhind S & French A (1999) Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in a Staffordshire bull terrier with hypothyroidism. JSAP 40 (4), 185-188 PubMed.
  • Brownlie S E (1990) A retrospective study of diagnosis in 109 cases of canine lower respiratory disease. JSAP 31 (8), 371-376 VetMedResource.


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