Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Lung: bronchiectasis

Contributor(s): Lesley G King

Introduction

  • Pathological dilation of bronchi.
  • Cause: congenital or inflammatory bronchial disease.
  • Signs: cough, dyspnea.
  • Diagnosis: radiography.
  • Treatment: long-term.
  • Prognosis: guarded.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Predisposing factors

General

Pathophysiology

  • Chronic pulmonary disease → chronic airway inflammation, poor ciliary performance, increased secretions → increased airway resistance, increased respiratory effort → air trapped within lung → alveolar hypoventilation → destruction of airway architecture and loss of elasticity of airway walls.
  • Poor airway hygiene → recurrent problems with bacterial overgrowth, bronchitis, pneumonia.
  • Congenital bronchiectasis associated with ciliary dyskinesia. Affected animals are usually young, and often have concurrent rhinitis with nasal discharge because the nasal mucosa is also lined with ciliated epithelial cells. Clinical signs may be seen in other organs that rely on ciliary function which is abnormal everywhere in the body, eg sperm motility, hydrocephalus.

Timecourse

  • Variable, usually chronic clinical signs over a period of weeks to months.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Cannon M S, Johnson L R, Pesavento P A et al (2013) Quantitative and qualitative computed tomographic characteristics of bronchiectasis in 12 dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 54 (4), 351-357 PubMed.
  • Hawkins E C, Basseches J, Berry C R et al (2003) Demographic, clinical and radiographic features of bronchiectasis in dogs: 316 cases (1988-2000). JAVMA 223 (11), 1628-1635 PubMed.


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