Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Incomplete ossification of the humeral condyle (IOHC)

Synonym(s): Incomplete fracture of the elbow joint

Contributor(s): Noel Fitzpatrick, Denis Marcellin-Little

Introduction

  • Abnormal development of humeral condyle that does not fully ossify and has a cartilaginous plane separating medial and lateral aspects.
  • Cartilaginous plane predisposes dogs to humeral condylar fracture occurring during normal activity.
  • Disease appears to have a genetic component with a recessive mode of inheritance.
  • Pathogenic mechanism of disease unknown but presence of disease may be associated with presence of fragmentation of medial coronoid process, a form of elbow dysplasia.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Etiology unknown.
  • Appears to have a genetic component with a recessive mode of inheritance. May be associated with elbow dysplasia - significant proportion of dogs with IOHC also have fragmentation or chondromalacia of medial coronoid process.
  • Humeral fractures that occur in dogs with IOHC generally result from normal activity (running, climbing or going down stairs).

Predisposing factors

General

Specific

  • None.

Pathophysiology

  • Unknown pathogenic mechanism.
  • In normal dogs, medial and lateral aspect of humeral condyle are separated by a cartilaginous zone that disappears by 8 - 12 weeks of age. In dogs with IOHC cartilaginous zone appears to persist.
  • Most affected dogs have IOHC on both elbow joints (1 in 5 dogs with IOHC will have bilateral humeral condylar fractures).

Timecourse

  • Dogs with IOHC have an abnormal humeral condyle and slowly develop degenerative joint disease in affected elbow joints; may not fracture elbow joints until adult.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Robin D & Marcellin-Little D J (2001) Incomplete ossification of the humeral condyle in two Labrador retrievers. J Sm Anim Pract 42 (5), 231-234 PubMed.
  • Rovesti G L, Flückiger M, Margini A et al (1998) Fragmented coronoid process and incomplete ossification of the humeral condyle in a RottweilerVet Surg 27 (4), 354-357 PubMed.
  • Marcellin-Little D J, Roe S C & DeYoung D J (1996) What is your diagnosis? Faint vertical condylar radiolucency, secondary to incomplete ossification of the humeral condyle. J Am Vet Med Assoc 209 (4), 727-728 PubMed.
  • Marcellin-Little D J, DeYoung D J, Ferris K K et al (1994) Incomplete ossification of the humeral condyle in spaniels. Vet Surg 23 (6), 475-487 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Marcellin-Little D J (1999)Incomplete Ossification of the humeral condyle in dogs.In:Kirk's current veterinary therapy XIII. Ed J D Bonagura. W B Saunders Company, Philadelphia. 1000-1004.


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