Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Chronic lymphoid leukemia

Synonym(s): CLL

Introduction

  • Less common than acute lymphoid leukemia Acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • Cause: neoplastic transformation and proliferation of late precursor lymphoid cells.
  • Signs: slow progression and mild clinical signs. May be incidental finding.
  • Diagnosis: predominance of mature lymphoid cells in bone marrow and marked lymphocytosis.
  • Treatment: supportive, specific cytotoxic agents.
  • Prognosis: reasonable.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Unknown.

Pathophysiology

  • Replacement of normal bone marrow tissue with neoplastic cells → myelosuppression → anemia, thrombocytopenia, granulocytopenia → secondary infections common.
  • Transformation of late precursor cells → proliferation of mature, differentiated cells →chronic leukemia→ less severe cytopenia.
  • Excessive numbers of circulating cells/hyperproteinemia → hyperviscosity → decreased oxygen transport to capillary beds → microthrombi of tumor cells.
  • Production of humoral factors → stimulation of osteoclasts → hypercalcemia of malignancy → polyuria/polydipsia → renal failure.

Timecourse

  • Months to years.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers


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