Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Canine adenovirus type 2 disease

Synonym(s): CAV-2, infectious canine laryngotracheitis virus

Contributor(s): Lynelle Johnson, Bryn Tennant

Introduction

  • A cause of 'kennel cough' (canine infectious tracheobronchitis Acute infectious tracheobronchitis ).
  • Cause: canine adenovirus type 2.
  • Signs: cough, depression.
  • Diagnosis: serology or virus isolation.
  • Treatment: treat secondary bacterial infection if present.
  • Prognosis: excellent if uncomplicated.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Adenovirus; serologically related to CAV-1 Canine adenovirus type 1 disease.
  • 75 nm non-enveloped DNA virus.
  • Moderately resistant: survives days to months in environment.
  • Inactivated by heating to 56°C (steam disinfection).

Predisposing factors

General
  • Contact with infected dog.
  • Boarding kennels.

Specific

  • Lack of effective vaccination.
  • Seronegative.

Pathophysiology

  • Highly infectious by aerosol → localized respiratory tract infection.
  • Replicate in upper and lower respiratory tract → shed in respiratory secretions.
  • Focal necrosis of turbinate/tonsillar epithelium.
  • Primary target site: bronchioles → proliferative, necrotizing bronchiolitis → peribronchiolar inflammation → interstitial pneumonia.
  • Secondary bacterial infection, egBordetella bronchiseptica Bordetella bronchiseptica ,Pasteurella multocida Pasteurella multocida ,Streptococcusspp Streptococcus spp → bronchopneumonia Lung: bacterial pneumonia.
  • Uncomplicated infections mild.

Timecourse

  • Incubation period 2-5 days.
  • Viral shedding for 6-9 days.
  • Recovery 3-7 days later unless secondary bacterial infection develops.

Epidemiology

  • Highly infectious; transmitted readily by aerosol; shed in respiratory secretions.
  • Rapid spread among unvaccinated dogs.
  • Morbidity 25-75%.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Benetka V et al (2006) Canine adenovirus type 2 infection in four puppies with neurological signs. Vet Rec 158, 91-94 PubMed.
  • Tinajero J P, Roblero R F, Lantz R C, Sobonya R E, Quan S F, Lemen R J, Tollinger B J & Witten M L (1997) Fractal analysis of lung alveoli during the acute phase vs repair phase of an adenoviral infection in canines. Res Commun Pathol Pharmacol 95 (3), 275-285 PubMed.
  • Witten M L, McKee J L, Lantz R C, Hays A M, Quan S F, Sobonya R E & Lemen R J (1993) Fractal and morphometric analysis of lung structures after canine adenovirus-induced bronchiolitis in beagle puppies. Pedriat Pulmonol 16 (1), 62-68 PubMed.
  • Quan S F, Witten M L, Grad R, Ray C G & Lemen R J (1991) Changes in lung mechanics and histamine responsivness after sequential canine adenovirus 2 and canine parainfluenza 2 virus infection in beagle puppies. Pediat Pulmonol 10 (4), 236-243 PubMed.
  • Grad R, Sobonya R E, Witten M L, Quan S F, Ray C G, Devine L C, Lentz L A & Leman R J (1990) Localization of inflammation and virions in canine adenovirus type 2 bronchiolitis. Am Rev Respir Dis 142 (3), 691-699 PubMed.
  • Quan S F, Lemen R J, Witten M L, Sherrill D L, Grad R, Sobonya R E & Ray C G (1990) Changes in lung mechanics and reactivity with age after viral bronchiolitis in beagle puppies. J Appl Physiol 69 (6), 2034-2042 PubMed.
  • Ueland K (1990) Serological, bacteriological and clinical observations on an outbreak of canine infectious tracheobronchitis in Norway. Vet Rec 126 (19), 481-483 PubMed.


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