Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Bordetella bronchiseptica

Synonym(s): B bronchiseptica

Contributor(s): Susan Dawson, Melissa Kennedy

Introduction

Classification

Taxonomy

  • Genus: Bordetella; species: bronchiseptica.

Etymology

  • Bordetella named after Jules Bordet who, together with Gengou, first isolated the organism causing pertussis. Bronchiseptica: Gk: bronchus - the trachea; septicus - putrefractive, septic; bronchiseptica - with an infected bronchus.

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Clinical Effects

Epidemiology

Habitat

  • Primarily parasite of the ciliated respiratory epithelium of mammals and birds.
  • Found in wild and domestic carnivores, rodents, pigs, rabbits, horses and other herbivores, primates and turkeys.
  • Presence does not necessarily indicate disease; can survive in lakewater and soil.

Lifecycle

  • Reproduces asexually.
  • Some conjugation with transfer of plasmids probably occurs.

Transmission

  • Some evidence of transmission between dogs and cats.
  • By aerosol or direct contact.
  • Most mammalian infections are airborne.
  • Infection may spread indirectly between turkeys in water and litter.

Pathological effects

  • Predeliction for ciliated cells of respiratory epithelium.
  • Adheres to the epithelial cells and produces adenyl cyclase and tracheal cytotoxin which protects the organisms from phagocytosis by host cells and causes ciliary paralysis. Rapid proliferation of the organism and an inflammation follow.
  • Dermonecrotizing toxin is formed, which is responsible for nasal turbinate atrophy in young pigs and may be important in other infections.

Diseases caused

  • Atrophic rhinitis (in conjunction with Pasturella multocida Pasteurella multocida ) and bronchopneumonia in pigs.
  • Canine infectious tracheobronchitis (kennel cough) Acute infectious tracheobronchitis in dogs. This may be primary disease or in association with viruses.
  • Upper respiratory tract disease and bronchopneumonia in cats.
  • Upper or lower respiratory tract infection in rabbits, guinea pigs and rats (may also cause septicemia).
  • Rare human infections. More common in immunocompromised patients.
  • Respiratory disease in horses.

Other Host Effects

  • Commensal in upper respiratory tract.

Control

Control via chemotherapies

  • Atrophic rhinitis is untreatable.
  • Kennel cough responds poorly to antibiotics; most canine isolates sensitive in vitro to tetracyclines Oxytetracycline Carbamate poisoning and fluoroquinolones.

Vaccination

  • Intranasal vaccine available for dogs.

Diagnosis

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from VetMed Resource and PubMed.
  • Ellis J A, Krakowka S, Dayton A D & Konoby C (2002) Comparative efficacy of an injectable vaccine and an intranasal vaccine in stimulating Bordetella bronchiseptica-reactive antibody responses in seropositsive dogs. JAVMA 220(1), 43-48.
  • Dawson S, Jones D, McCraken C M, Gaskell R M, Hart C A & Gaskell C J (2000) Bordetella bronchiseptica infection in cats following contact with infected dogs.Vet Rec 146, 46-48.
  • Speakman A J, Dawson S, Corkill J E,Binns S H, Hart CA and Gaskell R M (2000) Antibiotic susceptibility of canine Bordetella bronchiseptica isolatesVet Microbiol 71, 193-200.
  • Binns S H, Speakman A J, Dawson S et al (1998) The use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to examine the epidemiology of Bordetella bronchiseptica isolated from cats and other species. Epidemiol Infect 120(2), 201-208.
  • Toshach K, Jackson M V V & Dubielzig R R (1997) Hepatocellular necrosis associated with SC injection of an intranasal bordetella bronchiseptica - canine parainfluenza vaccine. JAAHA 33, 126-128.
  • Bemis D A (1992) Bordetella and Mycoplasma respiratory infections in dogs and cats. Vet Clin N Am - Sm Anim Prac 22(5), 1173-1178.
  • Ueland K (1990) Serological, bacteriological and clinical observations on an outbreak of canine infectious tracheobronchitis in Norway. Vet Rec 126(19), 481-483.

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