ISSN 2398-2993      

Rafoxanide

obovis
Contributor(s):

Rob Kelly

Andrew Forbes

Royal Dick School Veterinary Studies logo


Introduction

Name

  • Rafoxanide.

Class of drug

  • Salicylanilide.

Description

Chemical name

  • N-(3-chloro-4-(4-chlorophenoxy)phenyl)-2-hydroxy-3,5-diiodobenzamide.

Molecular formula

  • C19H11Cl2I2NO3.

Molecular weight

  • 626.01.

Physical properties

  • Fluid formulation usually a white (oral) or yellow-brown (injectable).
  • Powder formulations, which are not licensed for use in animals, are available usually grey-yellow in color with a melting point of ~158oC/316.4oF.

Storage requirements

Uses

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Indications

  • Predominantly for treatment and control of Fasciola spp infections from 6 weeks of age (juvenile to adult stages) in cattle and is also licensed for this use in sheep.
  • Also effective for the treatment larvae and adult nematode infections of Haemonchus Haemonchus spp, Oesophagostomum Oesophagostomum and Bunostomum Bunostomum spp spp in cattle. Efficacy is variable against nematode species, thus rafoxanide should not be considered a broad-spectrum anthelmintic in most UK settings as Ostertagia ostertagi Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia Cooperia spp spp predominate, however, in sub-tropical regions where Haemonchosis is prevalent, it can be a useful adjunct to control.
Rafoxanide is not currently licensed for commercial use in the UK. It is available in the Republic of Ireland and elsewhere.At the time of publication, rafoxanide is not licensed for commercial use in all countries, always check the specific product information and local regulations.

Administration

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Pharmacokinetics

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Precautions

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Interactions

With other drugs

  • None reported.

With diagnostic tests

  • None reported.

Withdrawal Period

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Adverse Reactions

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Fairweather I, Brennan G P, Hanna R E B, Robinson M W & Skuce P J (2020) Drug resistance in liver flukes. Int J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist 12, 39-59 PubMed.
  • Howell A K & Williams D J L (2020) The epidemiology and control of liver flukes in cattle and sheep. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 36 (1), 109-123 PubMed.
  • Stubbings L, Williams D & Hart N (2019) Rafoxanide is not an appropriate alternative to closantel. Vet Rec 185 (20), 633-634 PubMed
  • Power C, Danaher M, Sayers R et al (2013) Investigation of the persistence of rafoxanide residues in bovine milk and fate during processing. Food Addit Contam - Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 30 (6), 1087-1095 PubMed.
  • Mitchell G (2002) Update on fasciolosis in cattle and sheep. In Pract 24 (7), 378-385 VetMedResource
  • Fairweather I & Boray J C (1999) Fasciolicides: efficacy, actions, resistance and its management. Vet J 158 (2), 81-112 PubMed
  • Swan G E (1999) The pharmacology of halogenated Salicylanilides and their anthelmintic use in animals. J S Afr Vet Assoc 70 (2), 61-70 PubMed.
  • Martin R J (1997) Modes of action of anthelmintic drugs. Vet J 154 (1), 11-34 PubMed
  • Rapic D, Dzakula N, Sakar D & Richards R (1988) Comparative efficacy of triclabendazole, nitroxynil and rafoxanide against immature and mature Fasciola hepatica in naturally infected cattle. Vet Rec 122 (3), 59-62 VetMedResource
  • Razafindrakoto C, Ranaivoson A & Megard J P (1978) Efficacy of rafoxanide injections against adult Fasciola gigantica in zebu cattle in Madagascar. Rev Elev Med Vet Pays Trop 31 (2), 165-169 PubMed

Other sources of information

  • Deplazes P, Eckert J, Mathias A, von Samson-Himmelstjerna & Zahner H (2016) Helminths and Principles of Therapy and Control. In: Parasitology in Veterinary Medicine. Wageningen Academic Publishers. pp 175-186, 191-197, 224-254, 287-302, 303-312, 556-572.
  • Taylor M A, Coop R L & Wall R L (2007) Veterinary Helminthology from Cattle, Sheep and Resistance Sections. In: Veterinary Parasitology. 3rd edn. Blackwell Science. pp 51-91, 152-212, 770-775.
  •  National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Available at: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.
  • The NOAH Compendium. Datasheets of licensed veterinary medicines. Available at: https://www.noahcompendium.co.uk.
  • Veterinary Medicines Directorate. Adverse Reaction Reporting. Available at: https://www.vmd.defra.gov.uk.
  • Veterinary Medicines Directorate. Questions and Answers on FDA's Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). Available at:  https://www.noahcompendium.co.uk/home.

Organisation(s)

MEMBER BENEFIT

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!

 
 
 
 

To show you are not a Bot please can you enter the number showing adjacent to this field

 Security code