ISSN 2398-2993      

Meningocele

obovis

Synonym(s): Meningoencephalocele, Cranionencephalomeningocele


Introduction

  • Cause: meningocele occurs secondary to congenital and/or environmental factors.
  • Signs: cystic like structure (large, fluid-filled sac) protruding, usually from the forehead region of a neonatal calf. Neurological deficits may be present should brain tissue extend into the cyst or increased intracranial pressure result from pathology associated with the condition.
  • Diagnosis: clinical signs consistent with disease, the presence of a bone defect upon deep palpation around the cystic structure and diagnostic imaging.
  • Treatment: the majority of cases should be euthanized on welfare grounds. Surgical resection and repair of the associated bone deficit is possible but will carry a guarded prognosis.
  • Prognosis: guarded.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Meningocele occur due to defects in the neural tube during embryological development, resulting in incomplete closure of the neural tube. This results in the herniation of the meninges through the defect.
  • Cranioschisis occurs in meningoceles in the skull, which is the malformation of the skull and results in the incomplete closure of the skull. This incomplete closure leaves an opening through which intracranial tissue can project. This usually occurs in the frontal or parietal region of the cranium.

Predisposing factors

General

Specific

  • Focal failure of neural tube closure during embryogenesis.

Pathophysiology

  • Focal failure of neural tube closure during embryogenesis facilitates a failure in skeletal development in the region of the neural tube affected.
  • Meningoceles result from a failure to develop the caudal end of the neural tube resulting in a protrusion that contains cerebrospinal fluid, meninges, overlying skin, and does not have the spinal cord as its content.
  • These defects can be open neural tube defects due to defects in primary neurulation and can involve any area of the central nervous system.
  • These defects can be closed neural tube defects due to defects in secondary neurulation and present in the spine.

Timecourse

  • Meningocele is a congenital condition. It occurs during embryogenesis and the condition will be present from birth in affected individuals.

Epidemiology

  • Meningocoele is a rare condition in cattle and is usually sporadic in nature.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Niwas et al (2020) Common congenital surgical affections in large ruminants. Pharma Innov J 9 (7), 484-490 PharmaInnovation.
  • Nisha A, Jisha K J, Ranjith M & Sidhique S A (2020) A clinical study on the surgical management of cranial meningocele in a crossbred jersey calf. J Entomol Zoology Studies 8 (4), 2424-2426 EntomolJournal.
  • Kisipan M L, Orenge C O, Gacheru D N & Ngure R M (2017) A case of cranium bifidum with meningocele in Ayrshire calf. BMC Vet Res 13 (1), 20 PubMed.
  • Cho I C, Park Y S, Yoo J G et al (2015) Two cases of meningocele and meningoencephalocele in Jeju native pigs. BMC Vet Res 11, 89 PubMed.
  • Gangwar A K et al (2014) Congenital anomalies and their surgical correction in ruminants. Advan Anim Vet Sci 2 (7), 369-376 NexusAcademicPublishers.
  • Yaman T, Erdoğan S, Terzi F & Özyıldız Z (2013) Congenital meningoencephalocele in a Brown Swiss calf: a case report. Eurasian J Vet Sci 29 (2), 110–113 ResearchGate.

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