ISSN 2398-2993      

Hypopyon

obovis
Contributor(s):

Mike Reynolds

Paul Wood


Introduction

  • Cause: the presence of purulent material in the anterior chamber of the eye is called hypopyon. In cattle, it is often a clinical manifestation of sepsis.
  • Signs: dependent on etiology. Hypopyon in cattle is often associated with sepsis and systemic disease so additional clinical findings may include pyrexia, lymphadenopathy, congested mucus membranes, scleral congestion and collapse. Hypopyon can be visualized as the presence of purulent material in the anterior chamber of the eye.
  • Diagnosis: thorough clinical and ophthalmic examination.
  • Treatment: dependent on etiology.
  • Prognosis: guarded.
Hypopyon is a clinical sign, not a specific disease. As such, this article mentions a number of diseases, but focuses on neonatal septicemia as this is the most common cause of hypopyon in cattle. Please follow the links to related content for further details on other etiologies.
 

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Direct endogenous spread of bacteria to the uveal tract or endotoxemia from gram negative sepsis causing changes in the uveal vasculature and accumulation of fibrin and white blood cells in the anterior chamber of the eye.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Concurrent sepsis or systemic disease process.

Specific

Pathophysiology

  • In cases of neonatal septicemia, the primary site for bacterial entry is via the intestines in the immediate post-natal hours. This may be facilitated by non-specific pinocytosis allowing entry of immunoglobulins and bacteria at the same time.
  • Calves of one to two weeks old that experience enteritis (protozoal, viral or bacterial) may become septic after bacterial entry to the circulation across compromised intestinal mucosa.
  • The nasal mucosa, nasopharynx and oropharynx are also important bacterial entry points in this age range.
  • Calves of two weeks old and above are more likely to experience septic episodes as a sequela to pneumonia or seeding from a septic joint.
  • In older animals, bacteria may settle in the globe due to any number of etiologies and the resultant immune response results in pus accumulating in the anterior chamber. Examples of primary etiologies in older animals may include:

Timecourse

  • Dependent on etiology:
    • Classically neonatal septicemia has been described as a condition of calves encountered between 2-8 days of age. Neonatal septicemia is often fatal, but hypopyon alone is not life threatening.
  • In older animals, hypopyon may appear within days of a bacterial insult and pus may be visible in the eye for long periods even after resolution of the initial clinical signs.

Epidemiology

  • Any age group may be affected. However, failure of passive transfer in neonates and associated systemic disease insults may mean this age group is overrepresented.

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Treatment

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Prevention

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Outcomes

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Heller M C & Chigerwe M (2018) Diagnosis and treatment of infectious enteritis in neonatal and juvenile ruminants. Vet Clin Food Anim 34 (1), 101-117 PubMed.
  • Townsend W M (2010) Examination techniques and therapeutic regimens for the ruminant and camelid eye. Vet Clin Food Anim 26 (3), 437-458 PubMed.
  • Erdogan H M (2010) Listerial keratoconjunctivitis and uveitis (silage eye). Vet Clin Food Anim 26 (3), 505-510 PubMed.
  • Fecteau G, Smith B P & George L W (2009) Septicemia and meningitis in the newborn calf. Vet Clin Food Anim 25 (1), 195-208 PubMed.

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!

 
 
 
 

To show you are not a Bot please can you enter the number showing adjacent to this field

 Security code