ISSN 2398-2993      

Free end penile deviation

obovis
Contributor(s):

Karin Mueller

Eoin Ryan

Synonym(s): Spiral deviation, Corkscrew deviation


Introduction

  • Cause: the exact cause remains debated, with the two main thoughts being a loose attachment of or weakness in the dorsal penile (or apical) ligament, and premature onset of normal spiraling.
  • Signs: anti-clockwise spiraling of the free end of the penis prior to intromission. Indirect sign of females returning to estrus Estrus: signs and detection or poor pregnancy rate.
  • Diagnosis: close observation of the mating process is required to detect the abnormality. Intromission is disturbed.
  • Treatment: suture of the dorsal ligament onto the tunica albuginea.
  • Prognosis: guarded; improvement may be temporary only.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Intra-vaginal, ie post-intromission, partial or complete spiral deviation is believed to occur naturally in many bulls and does not affect the bull’s fertility (on the contrary, the increased contact it creates between penis and vaginal wall may stimulate ejaculation).
  • In affected bulls, such spiraling occurs prior to protrusion or intromission being achieved, and therefore impacts on fertility.

Predisposing factors

General

  • The normal anatomy of the dorsal ligament sees it being firmly attached to the underlying penile tunic only at its origin and insertion (with loose connective tissue in-between). Therefore, it is relatively free to move.

Specific

  • Debate remains whether there is an inherent weakness or loose attachment of the dorsal penile (or apical) ligament, or whether affected bulls simply achieve the natural deviation and spiraling prematurely.

Pathophysiology

  • When external force is applied to the partially erect penis in a normal bull, initially the penis will deflect ventrally and to the right (as seen from behind). With further force applied, anti-clockwise spiraling will be triggered.
  • In affected bulls, this deviation of the free end of the penis and/or spiraling occurs prior to intromission being achieved. Spiraling is triggered by the dorsal ligament slipping off to the left of the penis.

Timecourse

  • Both gradual and acute onset have been described.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Wolfe D F (2018) Review: Abnormalities of the bull – occurrence, diagnosis and treatment of abnormalities of the bull, including structural soundness. Theory Pract Int Bull Fert Conf 12 (S1), 148-157 PubMed.
  • Parmar S C (2016) Impotentia coeundi and impotentia generandi: A male infertility. Res J Sci Tech 8 (2), 113-121 RJSTOnline.
  • Blockey M A & Taylor E G (1984) Observations on spiral deviation of the penis in beef bulls. Aust Vet J 61 (5), 141-145 WileyOnline.
  • Ashdown R R & Pearson H (1973) Studies on corkscrew penis in the bull. Vet Rec 93 (2), 30-35 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Norman S, Bertram J & McGowan M (2008) Prevalence of Selected Abnormalities in Polled and Horned Bulls which Affect Breeding Soundness. Commissioned Report. Meat & Livestock Australia Ltd. ISBN: 9781741917420.
  • Wolfe D F, Beckett S D & Carson R L (1999) Acquired Conditions of the Penis and Prepuce - Bulls, Rams and Bucks. In: Large Animal Urogenital Surgery. 2nd edn. Eds: Wolfe D F & Moll H D. Williams & Wilkins, USA. pp 237-272.
  • Cox J E (1987) The Bovine Penis and Prepuce. In: Surgery of the Reproductive Tract in Large Animals. 3rd edn. Liverpool University Press, UK. pp 87-116.

Organisation(s)

  • Visual Guides of Animal Reproduction (VisGAR) The Visual Guide to Bovine Reproduction. Male Reproductive System: Penis. University of Florida, College of Veterinary Medicine, USA. Website: www.visgar.vetmed.ufl.edu

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