ISSN 2398-2993      

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever

obovis
Contributor(s):

Mike Reynolds

Andrew Forbes

Synonym(s): CCHF


Introduction

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) does not cause clinical disease in cattle but is included in Bovis as it is a high priority zoonotic disease which can be fatal to people. Cattle play an important role in its transmission to people.
  • CCHF is a high priority zoonotic disease; humans acquire CCHFV from either tick bites or exposure to blood or tissue from infected livestock or human patients.
  • Slaughtermen, Livestock workers and Veterinarians are high risk occupations for human disease in endemic regions.
  • Cattle play an important role in CCHF by playing host to tick vector species, becoming viremic and acting as indirect or direct sources of infection for humans.
  • Cause: CCHF is caused by the RNA Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) of the family Nairoviridae, order Bunyavirales.
  • Signs: CCHF is an asymptomatic disease in cattle, with no overt clinical signs.
  • Diagnosis: serological surveillance for antibodies in livestock plays a crucial role in public health measures to prevent human infection and to identify endemic areas where virus is circulating freely. Virus isolation can be undertaken during the period of viremia in cattle, but as the disease is asymptomatic in this species, positive samples may be difficult to obtain.
  • Treatment: not required, as clinical signs are not evident in livestock species.
  • Prognosis: excellent.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • CCHFV is transmitted to livestock and humans via the bite of Hyalomma ticks.
  • The natural cycle of CCHFV includes transovarial and transstadial transmission amongst Hyalomma ticks and a Tick-Vertebrate-Tick cycle involving wild and domestic ruminants, wildlife and humans.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Cattle and other livestock play a crucial role as amplifying hosts for the maintenance, circulation and epidemiology of CCHFV in livestock, humans and the tick host alike.

Specific

  • The presence of the disease vector, the Hyalomma tick.

Pathophysiology

  • CCHF is an asymptomatic disease in cattle.

Timecourse

  • Short duration (<7 days) of viremia of low intensity and no clinical signs demonstratable in animal species.

Epidemiology

  • Cattle acquire infection when ticks carrying CCHV attach and transmit the virus while feeding.
  • Following infection, cattle can be viremic for up to a week and if ticks feed on them during that time, then virus will be ingested with the blood meal. Infection is maintained in ticks and various vertebrate hosts, which apart from man, typically do not show any clinical signs.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Taraku A, Sas M A, Lugaj A, Bizhga B, Berxholi K & Groschup M H (2018) Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus infections in cattle in Kosovo. J Vet Med Res 5 (1), 1119 SciMedCentral (pdf download).
  • Mansfield K L, Jizhou J, Phipps L P, Johnson N (2017) Emerging Tick-Borne Viruses in the Twenty-First Century. Frontn Cell Infect Microbiol 7, 298 PubMed.
  • Nurmakhanov T, Sansyzbaev Y, Atshabar B et al (2015) Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus in Kazakhstan (1948-2013). Int J Infect Dis 38, 19–23 PubMed.
  • Adam I A, Mahmoud M A M & Aradaib I E (2013) A seroepidemiological survey of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever among Cattle in North Kordufan State, Sudan. Virol J 10 (78), 1-6 PubMed.
  • Lotfollahzadeh S, Nikbakht Boroujeni G H R, Mokhber Dezfouli M R & Bokaei S (2011) A serosurvey of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus in dairy cattle in Iran. Zoonoses Public Health 58 (1), 54–59 PubMed.
  • Chinikar S, Goya M M, Shirzadi M R et al (2008 ) Surveillance and laboratory detection system of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in Iran. Transbound Emerg Dis 55 (5-6), 200–204 PubMed.

Organisation(s)

  • OIE Terrestrial Manual (2018) Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever. Chapter 3.1.5. Website: www.oie.int (pdf download).

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